미트로 킨 아카이브 - Mitrokhin Archive

KGB의 칼과 방패 엠블럼에 의해 여섯 게시 된 책의 표지에 표시 바실리 미트로 킨크리스토퍼 앤드류

은 " Mitrokhin 아카이브 "에 의해 비밀리에 만든 필기 노트의 모음입니다 KGB 기록 보관 인 바실리 미트로 킨 외국 정보 기관과의 KGB의 기록 보관 그의 삼십년 동안 먼저 최고 이사회 . 1992 년 영국 으로 망명 했을 때 그는 기록 보관소를 가져 왔습니다.

의 공식 역사 MI5 , 크리스토퍼 앤드류는 , [1] 두 권의 책을 썼다 검과 방패 (1999)와 KGB의 및 제 3 세계에 대한 전투 : 세계는 우리의 길을 가고 있었다 의 재료에 따라, (2005) 아카이브. 이 책 은 전 세계 에있는 소련 의 비밀 정보 작전 에 대한 세부 정보를 제공한다고 주장합니다 .

2014 년 7 월, Churchill College 의 Churchill Archives Center는 공개 연구를 위해 Mitrokhin이 편집 한 러시아어 노트를 발표했습니다. [2] Vasili Mitrokhin의 손으로 쓴 원본 노트는 여전히 분류되어 있습니다. [삼]

도서 출판 후 조사

이 책의 출판은 영국, 이탈리아 및 인도에서 의회 조사를 촉발했습니다. [4]

영국 문의

영국에서 첫 번째 책 (Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield , 1999)이 출판 된 후 하원의 정보 및 보안위원회 (ISC)에서 조사가 진행되었습니다. 그 결과, "The Mitrokhin Inquiry Report"는 2000 년 6 월 의회에 제출되었습니다.

위원회는 비밀 정보국 (MI6)이 책이 출판되기 몇 년 전에 일부 스파이의 이름을 알고 있었지만 적절한 기소 당국에 알리지 않고 기소하지 않기로 결정했습니다. ISC는이 결정이 SIS가 아니라 법무관이 취할 것이라고 믿었습니다. ISC는 Mitrokhin을 인터뷰했습니다. 그는 책이 출판 된 방식에 만족하지 않고 그들에게 말했고, 노트를 쓸 때 의도 한 바를 달성하지 못했다고 느꼈습니다. 그는 "자신의 자료 처리에 대한 모든 권한"을 유지하기를 원했습니다.

SIS는 책을 출판하기 전에 요구 한대로 내무 장관과 법무 장관과 함께 영국 지부를 정리하고 있다고 밝혔지만위원회는 그렇게하지 않았다고 밝혔다. 또한 ISC는 "오해의 소지가있는 기사는 널리 유포 될 수있다"고 생각했고,위원회는 SIS가 출판물이나 관련 매체 문제를 적절하게 처리하지 않은 것으로 확인했습니다. [5]

이탈리아 문의

In Italy, Silvio Berlusconi, who was Prime Minister at the time, established the Mitrokhin Commission in 2002 to investigate information about the KGB connections in Italy claimed in the Mitrokhin Archives. The Mitrokhin Commission ended in a scandal, and without evidence to tie any Italian politician.[6] An Italian minister said that the archive "is not a dossier from the KGB but one about the KGB constructed by British counter-espionage agents based on the confession of an ex-agent, if there is one, and 'Mitrokhin' is just a codename for an MI5 operation."[7]

India inquiry

In India, a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, L. K. Advani, requested of the Government a white paper on the role of foreign intelligence agencies and a judicial enquiry on the allegations in The Mitrokhin Archive II.[8] The spokesperson of the Indian Congress party referred to the book as "pure sensationalism not even remotely based on facts or records" and pointed out that the book is not based on official records from the Soviet Union.[9]

Origin of the notes

바실리 Nikitich Mitrokhin는 원래 그의 경력을 시작 먼저 최고 이사회KGB 지붕 작업에서 (외국 간첩). Nikita Khrushchev의 비밀 연설 이후 Mitrokhin은 기존 KGB 시스템에 대해 비판적이었으며 Operations에서 Archives로 이전되었습니다. 수년에 걸쳐 Mitrokhin은 특히 반체제 자들의 투쟁과 1968 년 바르샤바 조약의 체코 슬로바키아 침공에 대한 이야기 ​​이후 소련 시스템에 점점 더 환멸을 느꼈고 , 그로 인해 소련 시스템이 개혁 불가능하다는 결론을 내 렸습니다. " [10]

By the late 1960s, the KGB headquarters at the Lubyanka Building became increasingly overcrowded, and the Chairman of the KGB, Yuri Andropov, authorized the construction of a new building outside of Moscow in Yasenevo, which was to become the new headquarters of the First Chief Directorate and all Foreign Operations. Mitrokhin, who was by that time the head of the Archives department, was assigned by the director of the First Directorate, Vladimir Kryuchkov, with the task of cataloging the documents and overseeing their orderly transfer to the new headquarters. The transfer of the massive archive eventually took over 12 years, from 1972 to 1984.[10][11][12]

문서를 카탈로그 동안 Kryuchkov와 KGB 모르게, Mitrokin 비밀리에 자신의 복사본 그가 마루에서 그의 오두막 및 HID에 밀수 문서의 대단히 상세한 메모를했다. Mitrokhin는 소련 시대 중에 서방 정보 서비스에 문의 할 시도를하지 않았다. 애프터 소련의 해체 (1992 년) 그는 여행 라트비아 아카이브에서 자료의 사본 및에있는 미국 대사관에 걸어 리가 . 중앙 정보 기관의 임원이 복사 된 문서를 위조 할 수 있다고 판단, 그를 신뢰할 수있을 고려하지 않았다. 그는 영국으로 갔다대사관과 젊은 외교관이 그의 잠재력을 보았습니다. 한 달 후 MI6 대표들과 추가 회의를 한 후, 그의 집에 숨겨져있는 25,000 페이지의 파일을 검색하여 1930 년대까지 거슬러 올라가는 작업을 처리했습니다. [10] [11]

메모의 내용

Notes in the Mitrokhin Archive claim that more than half of the Soviet Union's weapons are based on US designs, that the KGB tapped Henry Kissinger's telephone when he was US Secretary of State, and had spies in place in almost all US defense contractor facilities. The notes allege that some 35 senior politicians in France worked for the KGB during the Cold War. In West Germany, the KGB was said to have infiltrated the major political parties, the judiciary, and the police. Large-scale sabotage preparations were supposedly made against the US, Canada, and elsewhere in case of war, including hidden weapons caches; several have been removed or destroyed by police relying on Mitrokhin's information.[13][where?]

Prominent KGB spies named in the files

KGB의 정보원 또는 대리인으로 기소 된 라틴 아메리카 지도자

Christopher Andrew states that in the Mitrokhin Archive there are several Latin American leaders or members of left wing parties accused of being KGB informants or agents. For example, FSLN leader Carlos Fonseca Amador was described as "a trusted agent" in KGB files.[20][21] Nikolai Leonov was Sub-Director of the Latin American Department of the KGB between 1968–1972. In 1998 he gave a lecture where he made statements that contradicted these claims. For instance he said that the KGB was not allowed to recruit members from Communist or other left wing parties.[22]

Daniel Ortega agreed to "unofficial meetings" with KGB officers.[not specific enough to verify] He gave Nikolai Leonov a secret program of the Sandinista movement (FSLN), which stated the FSLN's intent to lead class struggle in Central America, in alliance with Cuba and the Soviet bloc.[23] However, Leonov stated that he became friends with many Latin Americans including some leaders, and that he and other Soviets supported the struggles of left wing groups. But he clarifies that he did not let people know that he was a KGB agent and that his relationships with them did not involve intelligence.[22]

KGB의 정보원 또는 대리인으로 기소 된 중동 인사

2016년 9월에서 두 연구원 (DR.하여 작업 I. Ginor 와 G. Remez)는 밝혔다 마흐무드 압바스 (또한 '아부 마젠'라고도 함)는 팔레스타인 국가 기관의 대통령 , 소련 정보 기관을 위해 일했다. "KGB 개발 - 1983 년"라는 제목의 Mitrokhin 아카이브에서 최근 발표 된 자료에 따르면, 압바스는 분명히 1980 년대 초 시작, 코드 명 "Krotov"에서 일했다. [24] [25] [26]

파일에 공개 된 KGB 작업

  • 협박 톰 드리 버그 (르 페이지를 코드 명), 영국 MP 와의 집행위원회의 일원 노동당 1950 년대한다. Driberg는 1930 년대에 MI5를 위해 영국 공산당을 염탐했습니다 . 1956 년에 모스크바방문하여 그의 오랜 친구 인 Guy Burgess 를 전기 로 인터뷰 하는 동안 , KGB는 동성애와의 만남에서 그의 사진을 가지고 있었기 때문에 Burgess의 알코올 중독에 대한 언급을 제거하라는 협박을 받았습니다. [27]
  • 무장 단체에 위조 된 증오 편지를 우송하여 미국에서 인종적 증오를 증가시키려는 시도 [28]
  • 도청 MI6의 에서 방송국 중동 [29]
  • Bugging Henry Kissinger when he was serving as United States Secretary of State[30]
  • Obtaining documents from defense contractors including Boeing, Fairchild, General Dynamics, IBM, and Lockheed Corporation, providing the Soviets with detailed information about the Trident and Peacekeeper ballistic missiles and Tomahawk cruise missiles[31]
  • Supporting the Sandinista movement. The leading role in this operation belonged to the General Intelligence Directorate of Communist Cuba.[32]
  • KGBs direct link to Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi (code-named Vano). "Suitcases full of banknotes were said to be routinely taken to the Prime Minister's house. Former Syndicate member S. K. Patil is reported to have said that Mrs. Gandhi did not even return the suitcases".[33] Systematic control of the Indian Media was also revealed- "According to KGB files, by 1973 it had ten Indian newspapers on its payroll (which cannot be identified for legal reasons) as well as a press agency under its control.65 During 1972 the KGB claimed to have planted 3,789 articles in Indian newspapers - probably more than in any other country in the non-Communist world. According to its files, the number fell to 2,760 in 1973 but rose to 4,486 in 1974 and 5,510 in 1975.66 In some major NATO countries, despite active-measures campaigns, the KGB was able to plant little more than 1 per cent of the articles which it placed in the Indian press"[34]

Accused but unconfirmed

  • Richard Clements, journalist and editor of the Tribune, and later an advisor to Michael Foot and Neil Kinnock as leaders of the British Labour Party. Clements was not named in Andrew and Mitrokhin's book in 1999, but an article in The Sunday Times made the allegation that he was the unidentified agent of influence codenamed DAN.[35] According to the Mitrokhin Archive, DAN disseminated Soviet propaganda in his articles in the Tribune, from his recruitment in 1959 until he severed contact with the KGB in the 1970s.[36] Clements denied the allegation, saying that it was an over-inflated claim and "complete nonsense", and that the allegation was not subsequently repeated.[37] Those defending Clements against the charges included David Winnick and Andrew Roth.[38]
  • Romano Prodi (see Italian Mitrokhin Commission).

Disinformation campaign against the United States

Andrew described the following active measures by the KGB against the United States:[39]

Installation and support of communist governments

According to Mitrokhin's notes, Soviet security organizations played key roles in establishing puppet Communist governments in Eastern Europe and Afghanistan. Their strategy included mass political repressions and establishing subordinate secret police services at the occupied territories.

The KGB director Yuri Andropov took suppression of anti-Communist liberation movements personally. In 1954, he became the Soviet Ambassador to Hungary, and was present during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. After these events, Andropov had a "Hungarian complex":

... he had watched in horror from the windows of his embassy as officers of the hated Hungarian security service were strung up from lampposts. Andropov remained haunted for the rest of his life by the speed with which an apparently all-powerful Communist one-party state had begun to topple. When other Communist regimes later seemed at risk—in Prague in 1968, in Kabul in 1979, in Warsaw in 1981, he was convinced that, as in Budapest in 1956, only armed force could ensure their survival.[48]

Andropov played a key role in crushing the Hungarian Revolution. He convinced reluctant Nikita Khrushchev that military intervention was necessary.[49] He convinced Imre Nagy and other Hungarian leaders that the Soviet government had not ordered an attack on Hungary while the attack was beginning. The Hungarian leaders were arrested and Nagy was executed.

During the Prague Spring events in Czechoslovakia, Andropov was a vigorous proponent of "extreme measures".[49] He ordered the fabrication of false intelligence not only for public consumption, but also for the Soviet Politburo. "The KGB whipped up the fear that Czechoslovakia could fall victim to NATO aggression or to a coup." At that moment, Soviet intelligence officer Oleg Kalugin reported from Washington that he had gained access to "absolutely reliable documents proving that neither CIA nor any other agency was manipulating the Czechoslovak reform movement." But, Kalugin's messages were destroyed because they contradicted the conspiracy theory fabricated by Andropov.[50] 안드로포프 많은 주문 활성 측정 체코 슬로바키아 개질기 대해 총괄적 동작 PROGRESS라고도,. [51]

암살 시도 및 음모

Penetration of churches

이 책은 "설립 설명 모스크바 총 대주교를 A와 1943 년 스탈린부터 순서의" 전면 조직 에 대한 NKVD 에 대한 이상 및 KGB . [59] 주교를 포함하여 교회의 모든 키 위치는, 소련 공산당의 이데올로기 부서와 KGB에 의해 승인되었다. 제사장이 사용 된 영향의 에이전트 에서 세계 교회 협의회 와 같은 전면 조직에서 세계 평화위원회 , 기독교 평화 회의, 그리고 로디 ( "조국") 사회는 1975 년에 KGB에 의해 미래 러시아에 설립 대주교 알렉 시우스 II를 Rodina가 말했다로 만들었습니다 그들을 구성하는 데 도움이 "우리의 동포들과의 영적 관계를 유지". 아카이브에 따르면, 알렉 시우스는 에이전트 드로 츠 도프와 KGB 근무 및 서비스의 다양한 기관에서 명예 표창장을 받았다. [60]

국제 해방 운동 지원

The Andrew and Mitrokhin publications briefly describe the history of the PLO leader, Yasser Arafat, who established close collaboration with the Romanian Securitate service and the KGB in the early 1970s.[61] The KGB provided secret training for PLO guerrillas.[62] However, the main KGB activities and arms shipments were channeled through Wadie Haddad of the PFLP organization, who usually stayed in a KGB dacha BARVIKHA-1 during his visits to the Soviet Union. Led by Carlos the Jackal, a group of PFLP fighters carried out a spectacular raid on the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries office in 1975 년 비엔나 .이 작전에 대한 사전 통지는 KGB에 "거의 확실하게"주어졌습니다. [61]

많은 주목할만한 작업은의 주문에 무기와 국제 테러를 지원하기 위해 KGB에 의해 수행 된 것으로 추정되는 소련의 공산당 을 포함한 :

이탈리아 미트로 킨위원회

In 2002, the Italian Parliament, then led by Silvio Berlusconi's right-wing coalition, the Casa delle Libertà, created a commission, presided over by Senator Paolo Guzzanti (Forza Italia) to investigate alleged KGB ties to opposition figures in Italian politics. The commission was shut down in 2006 without having developed any new concrete evidence beyond the original information in the Mitrokhin Archive.[65] However, former FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko said that he had been informed by FSB deputy chief, General Anatoly Trofimov (who was shot dead in Moscow) 2005 년, 그 "로마노 프로디 [이탈리아] 우리의 사람이다." [66]

영국 유럽 의회의 회원 을위한 런던 , 제라드 배튼영국 독립 당사자 의 주장에 새 질문을 요구했다. [67]

서구의 대규모 파괴를위한 준비

아무도 모듬 외국에서 무기와 폭발물 캐시를 만드는 이상, 수행 된 것으로 기록되지 않았지만 보관에주의, 전쟁의 경우 미국, 캐나다, 유럽에 대한 대규모 파괴 작업을위한 다양한 준비를 설명합니다. [68] 이 정보는 일반적으로 뒷받침되었다 GRU의 , 이탈 빅터 수보 로프 [69]스타니 슬라브 룬브를 . [70] 의 동작은 다음과 같다 :

  • 의 파괴에 대한 계획 배고픈 말 댐 에서 몬태나 . [71]
  • A detailed plan to destroy the port of New York (target GRANIT). The most vulnerable points of the port were determined and recorded on maps.[71]
  • Large arms caches were hidden in many countries to support such planned terrorism acts. Some were booby-trapped with "Lightning" explosive devices. One such cache, identified by Mitrokhin, was found by Swiss authorities in the woods near Fribourg. Several other caches in Europe were removed successfully.[72] A KGB radio equipment cache was found in woods outside of Brussels, Belgium in 1999.[73]
  • Disruption of the power supply across New York State by KGB sabotage teams, which were to be based along the Delaware River in Big Spring Park.[71]
  • An "immensely detailed" plan to destroy "oil refineries and oil and gas pipelines across Canada from British Columbia to Montreal" (operation "Cedar") was prepared; the work took twelve years to complete.[74]

Reception and reviews

The historian Joseph Persico wrote that "several of the much-publicized revelations [from the book], however, hardly qualify as such. For instance, the authors tell how the K.G.B. forged a letter from Lee Harvey Oswald to E. Howard Hunt, the former C.I.A. officer and later Watergate conspirator, in order to implicate the C.I.A. in the Kennedy assassination. Actually, this story surfaced in Henry Hurt's Reasonable Doubt, written 13 years ago. Similarly, the story that the K.G.B. considered schemes for breaking the legs of the ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev for defecting to the West was first reported in a book written six years ago." And he added that "it does seem odd that a key K.G.B. archivist never had access to a copying machine, but had to copy thousands of pages in longhand. Still, the overall impact of this volume is convincing, though none of the material will send historians scurrying to rewrite their books."[75]

The Central European Review described Mitrokhin and Andrew's work as "fascinating reading for anyone interested in the craft of espionage, intelligence gathering and its overall role in 20th-century international relations," offering "a window on the Soviet worldview and, as the ongoing Hanssen case in the United States clearly indicates, how little Russia has relented from the terror-driven spy society it was during seven inglorious decades of Communism.[76]"

David L. Ruffley, from the Department of International Programs, United States Air Force Academy, said that the material "provides the clearest picture to date of Soviet intelligence activity, fleshing out many previously obscure details, confirming or contradicting many allegations and raising a few new issues of its own" and "sheds new light on Soviet intelligence activity that, while perhaps not so spectacular as some expected, is nevertheless significantly illuminating.[77]"

Reg Whitaker, a professor of Political Science at York University in Toronto, gave a review at the Intelligence Forum about the book where he wrote that "The Mitrokhin Archive arrives from a cache under a Russian dacha floor, courtesy of the British intelligence community itself, and its chosen historian, Chris Andrew" and that the book "is remarkably restrained and reasonable in its handling of Westerners targeted by the KGB as agents or sources. The individuals outed by Mitrokhin appear to be what he says they were, but great care is generally taken to identify those who were unwitting dupes or, in many instances, uncooperative targets.[78]

Jack Straw (then Home Secretary) stated to the British Parliament in 1999: "In 1992, after Mr. Mitrokhin had approached the UK for help, our Secret Intelligence Service made arrangements to bring Mr. Mitrokhin and his family to this country, together with his archive. As there were no original KGB documents or copies of original documents, the material itself was of no direct evidential value, but it was of huge value for intelligence and investigative purposes. Thousands of leads from Mr. Mitrokhin's material have been followed up worldwide. As a result, our intelligence and security agencies, in co-operation with allied Governments, have been able to put a stop to many security threats. Many unsolved investigations have been closed; many earlier suspicions confirmed; and some names and reputations have been cleared. Our intelligence and security agencies have assessed the value of Mr. Mitrokhin's material world wide as immense.[79]"

The author Joseph Trento commented that "we know the Mitrokhin material is real because it fills in the gaps in Western files on major cases through 1985. Also, the operational material matches western electronic intercepts and agent reports. What MI6 got for a little kindness and a pension was the crown jewels of Russian intelligence.[80]"

Scholar Amy Knight said that "While The Sword and the Shield contains new information ... none of it has much significance for broader interpretations of the Cold War. The main message the reader comes away with after plowing through almost a thousand pages is the same one gleaned from the earlier books: the Soviets were incredibly successful, albeit evil, spymasters, and none of the Western services could come close to matching their expertise. Bravo the KGB.[81]"

Notes

  1. ^ "Just How Intelligent" The Guardian, February 18, 2003
  2. ^ "Mitrokhin's KGB archive opens to public". Churchill College. 2014-07-07.
  3. ^ KGB 논문, 1992 년 이후 비밀 유지, 영국 기록 보관소에서 공개
  4. ^ Mitrokhin 조회 보고
  5. ^ "지능 및 보안위원회 : Mitrokhin 조회보고" (PDF) . GOV.UK . 2015 년 623 일에 확인 .
  6. Slate, 2006 년 12 월 11 일
  7. Andrew, Christopher (2001 년). 검과 방패 . 기본 책. 피. 26. ISBN 0-465-00312-5.
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