메시아 청구자 목록 - List of messiah claimants

이것은 자신이나 추종자들에 의해 메시아 라고 말한 주목할만한 사람들의 목록입니다 . 목록은 생년월일 (알려진 경우)에 따라 분류 된 범주로 나뉩니다.

유대인 메시아 청구자

유대교에서 "메시아"는 원래 다윗 , 키루스 대왕 [1] 또는 알렉산더 대왕 과 같이 신성하게 임명 된 왕을 의미했습니다 . [2] 나중에, 특히 하 스모 니아 왕국 (기원전 37 년)과 유대-로마 전쟁 (AD 66-135)이 실패한 후, 유대인 메시아 의 모습은 유대인을 억압 에서 구해 내고 올람을 안내 하는 인물이었습니다. Haba ( " 올 세계 ") 또는 메시아 닉 시대 . 그러나 "거짓 메시아"라는 용어는 랍비 문학에는 거의 없었습니다. 첫 번째 언급은 Sefer Zerubbabel에 있습니다., 7 세기 중반부터 mashiah sheker 라는 용어를 사용합니다 ( "거짓 메시아"). [삼]

기독교 메시아 청구자

Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri, Baháʼu'lláh
사이먼 마구스

기독교 성경의 구절은 예수님이 어떤 식 으로든 다시 오실 것이라고 말합니다. 사실 여러 사람들이 예수님의 재림이라고 주장했습니다. 다른 사람들은 여전히 ​​기독교의 우산 아래 새로운 메시아 스타일로 지정되었습니다. 공관 복음 (마 24 : 4, 6, 24; 막 13 : 5, 21-22; 루크 21 : 3)이라는 용어를 사용하는 모든 pseudochristos 메시아 가짜 대. [19]

무슬림 메시아 청구자

이슬람 전통에는 이사 (예수) 의 귀환과 함께 올 마흐디 의 예언이 있습니다.

  • 인도 북동부를 여행 한 무하마드 자운 푸리 (1443-1505). 그는 MahdaviaZikris에 영향을 미쳤 습니다 .
  • Báb (1819–1850), who declared himself to be the promised Mahdi in Shiraz, Iran in 1844. (Related to Baháʼí claims—see the Christian Messiah Claimants section above—Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri, also known as Baháʼu'lláh.)
  • Muhammad Ahmad ("The Mad Mahdi") (1844–1885), who declared himself the Mahdi in 1881, defeated the Ottoman Egyptian authority, and founded the Mahdist Sudan.
  • 인도 카디 안 (1835-1908) 미르자 굴람 아마드 (Mirza Ghulam Ahmad )는 자신이 기대되는 마흐디와 메시아 둘 다라고 선언했다 . [43] [44] 이슬람 역사에서 둘 다라고 주장한 유일한 사람이다. 그러나 결정적으로 그는 예수님이 십자가에 못 박혀 살아남은 후 자연사를 당했다고 주장했다. [43] 그의 장래 강림에 관한 예언은 Mahdi가 마흐디와 함께 육체적으로 돌아 오기보다는 예수님의 자질과 성품을 지닌 마흐디 자신을 언급했다. 그는 아마 디야 운동을 창설했습니다.1889 년에 그것을 이슬람의 회춘이라고 생각했습니다. 아마 디야 운동의 지지자들은 엄격하게 무슬림이라고 주장하지만, 다른 무슬림 그룹에서는 불신자 나 이단자로 널리 간주됩니다. [45] [46]
  • 사이드 모하메드 압둘라 하산 (1864 ~ 1920) 은 1900 년에서 1920 년 사이에 2 년에 걸친 긴 저항 운동 으로 현재 소말리아 에서 더비시 국가 를 이끌었습니다 .
  • Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), an Egyptian-American biochemist who claimed that he had discovered a mathematical code in the text of the Qur'an involving the number 19; he later claimed to be the "Messenger of the Covenant" and founded the "Submitters International" movement before being murdered.
  • Juhayman al-Otaybi (1936–1980), who seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca in November 1979 and declared his brother-in-law the Mahdi.
  • Hasan Mezarcı (11 May 1954) Conservative Islamist politician and member of parliament in the Republic of Turkey (1991-1995), was expelled from the Welfare Party and imprisoned for his extreme view against secularism. He claimed to be a prophet, the Messiah, and Jesus himself after his imprisonment.
  • Harun Yahya (2 February 1956), an Islamic creationist cult leader, active in Turkey since 1979. He believes himself to be the Messiah and focuses his brand of Islam on close reading of the Quran, with dramatic presentations similar to Christian televangelism, and the author of The Atlas of Creation.

Other or combination messiah claimants

Haile Selassie

This list features people who are said, either by themselves or their followers, to be some form of a messiah that do not easily fit into only Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

  • Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia (1892–1975), Messiah of the Rastafari movement. Never claimed himself to be Messiah, but was thus proclaimed by Leonard Howell, amongst others.
  • André Matsoua (1899–1942), Congolese founder of Amicale, proponents of which subsequently adopted him as Messiah.
  • Samael Aun Weor (1917–1977), born Víctor Manuel Gómez Rodríguez, Colombian citizen and later Mexican, was an author, lecturer and founder of the Universal Christian Gnostic Movement. By 1972, Samael Aun Weor referenced that his death and resurrection would be occurring before 1978.
  • Nirmala Srivastava (1923–2011), guru and goddess of Sahaja Yoga, proclaimed herself to be the Comforter promised by Jesus (that is, the incarnation of the Holy Ghost / Adi Shakti).[47][48]
  • Jose Luis de Jesus Miranda (born 1946 – died 2013), a Puerto Rican preacher who had claimed to be both "the Man Jesus Christ" and the Antichrist at the same time. He claimed he was indwelled with the same spirit that dwelled in Jesus, however, Miranda also contradicted his claims of being Christ incarnate by also claiming he was the Antichrist, even going as far as tattooing the number of the beast (666) on his forearm, a behavior his followers also adopted. Founder of the "Growing in Grace" ministries, Miranda died on August 14, 2013 due to liver cancer.
  • Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi (born 25 November 1941) is a spiritual leader and the founder of the spiritual movements Messiah Foundation International (MFI) and Anjuman Serfaroshan-e-Islam.[49][50] He is controversial for being declared the Mehdi, Messiah, and Kalki Avatar by the MFI.[51][52][53]
  • Raël, founder and leader of Raëlism (born 30 September 1946); Rael claimed he met an extraterrestrial being in 1973 and became the Messiah.
  • World Teacher (unknown), a being claimed to be the Theosophical Maitreya and the Messiah (promised one) of all religions. He is said to have descended from the higher planes and manifested a physical body in early 1977 in the Himalayas, then on 19 July 1977 he is said to have taken a commercial airplane flight from Pakistan to England. He is currently said to be living in secret in London;[54][55][56] promoted by New Age activist Benjamin Creme and his organization, Share International (See Maitreya (Benjamin Creme)).
  • Ryuho Okawa (born 7 July 1956), is the founder of Happy Science in Japan. Okawa claims to channel the spirits of Muhammad, Christ, Buddha and Confucius and claims to be the incarnation of the supreme spiritual being called El Cantare.

See also

References

  1. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Messiah: "In Isa. xlv. 1 Cyrus is called "God's anointed one," ...:
  2. ^ "Messiah: Alexander as Messiah". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  3. ^ William Horbury, Markus Bockmuehl, James Carleton Paget: Redemption and resistance: the messianic hopes of Jews and Christians in antiquity Page 294 : (2007) ISBN 978-0567030443
  4. ^ Professor Bart D. Ehrman, The Historical Jesus, Part I, p. 2, The Teaching Company, 2000.
  5. ^ Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C., eds. (31 December 2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. p. 709. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2.
  6. ^ "People of the Book". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
  7. ^ "Quran 3:46-158". Archived from the original on 2015-05-01.
  8. ^ Christianity at a glance BBC. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  9. ^ Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). "Messianic Jewish theology". Messianic Judaism. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-8264-5458-4. OCLC 42719687. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  10. ^ Likutei Sichos, Vol 2, pp. 510-511.
  11. ^ Identifying Chabad : What they teach and how they influence the Torah world (Revised ed.). Illinois: Center for Torah Demographics. 2007. p. 13. ISBN 978-1411642416. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  12. ^ Singer, HaRav Tovia. "Why did some expect the Lubavitcher Rebbe to Resurrect as the Messiah? Rabbi Tovia Singer Responds (video-lecture)". Tovia Singer Youtube.com. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  13. ^ a b Bar-Hayim, HaRav David. "The False Mashiah of Lubavitch-Habad". Machon Shilo (Shilo Institute). Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  14. ^ a b Bar-Hayim, HaRav David. "Habad and Jewish Messianism (audio)". Machon Shilo (Shilo Institute). Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  15. ^ "Crown Heights, NY - Famed Posek Rabbi Menashe Klein: Messianic Group Within Chabad Are Apikorsim". May 7, 2009.
  16. ^ "On Chabad". Archived from the original on February 19, 2015.
  17. ^ Public Responsa from Rabbi Aharon Feldman on the matter of Chabad messiansim (Hebrew), 23 Sivan, 5763 - http://moshiachtalk.tripod.com/feldman.pdf. See also Rabbi Feldman's letter to David Beger: http://www.stevens.edu/golem/llevine/feldman_berger_sm_2.jpg
  18. ^ Berger, David (April 1, 2008). The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference. Littman Library Of Jewish Civilization. ISBN 978-1904113751. for further information see the article: The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference
  19. ^ Harris Lenowitz The Jewish Messiahs: From the Galilee to Crown Heights age 31 (2001) ISBN 978-0195148374
  20. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia: Dositheans: "Origen states that "Dositheus the Samaritan, after the time of Jesus, wished to persuade the Samaritans that he himself was the Messias prophesied by Moses" (Contra Celsum, VI, ii); and he classes him with John the Baptist, Theodas, and Judas of Galilee as people whom the Jews mistakenly held to be the Christ (Hom. xxv in Lucam; Contra Celsum, I, lvii)."
  21. ^ See "Contra Celsum," i. 57, vi. 11; in Matth. Comm. ser. xxxiii.; "Homil." xxv. in Lucam; "De Principiis," iv. 17.
  22. ^ Campion, Nardi Reeder (1976), Ann the Word: The Life of Mother Ann Lee, Founder of the Shakers, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, ISBN 978-0-316-12767-7
  23. ^ "Mother Ann Lee (section Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Ann Lee)". Answers.com. 2017-04-19. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  24. ^ Rogers, P. G. (1961), Battle in Bossenden Wood, Oxford University Press
  25. ^ Balyuzi, H.M. (1963). Baháʼu'lláh (1973 ed.). Oxford: George Ronald. pp. 11–12, 33–34. ISBN 0-85398-014-4.
  26. ^ a b Wilson, Bryan R. (1975). The Noble Savages: The Primitive Origins of Charisma and Its Contemporary Survival. University of California Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-520-02815-9. ... but their prominence and relative success when compared with such figures as Louwrens van Voorthuizen (Lou) in Holland, Georges Roux in France, and Oskar Ernst Bernhardt in Germany and Austria, all of whom claimed to be the messiah—is striking.
  27. ^ "Samael Aun Weor". Retrieved 2016-06-22.
  28. ^ "World Mission Society Church of God". English.watv.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  29. ^ a b Moon At Twilight: Amid scandal, the Unification Church has a strange new mission, Peter Maass New Yorker Magazine, September 14, 1998. "Moon sees the essence of his own mission as completing the one given to Jesus--establishing a "true family" untouched by Satan while teaching all people to lead a God-centered life under his spiritual leadership."..."Although Moon often predicts in his sermons that a breakthrough is near, Moffitt realizes that Moon may not come to be seen as the messiah in his lifetime."
  30. ^ "Sect Leader Who Allegedly Sought Virgins Found Guilty on Sex Charge - Local News - News Articles - National News - US News". FOXNews.com. TAOS, N.M. 15 December 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  31. ^ Luca, Nathalie (March 2002). "After the Moon sect: South Korea and indoctrination through the sacred game of football". CNRS. Archived from the original on 2005-10-19. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
  32. ^ "Guru said to have raped prospective brides before mass weddings". Asahi Shimbun. 3 August 2006. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  33. ^ "Concerns raised about cult led by fugitive". Asahi Shimbun. 28 July 2006. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  34. ^ "Claims sect using social groups to recruit members". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2001-03-10. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
  35. ^ "Suspect of Corrupt Cult Founder Arrested in China". The Korea Times. 2007-05-13. Archived from the original on 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
  36. ^ "Cult Leader Extradited to Korea". The Korea Times. 2008-02-21. Archived from the original on 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
  37. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design.
  38. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design; 290-1.
  39. ^ "Summary of INRI CRISTO's life". Archived from the original on June 6, 2008.
  40. ^ "Kingdom of Jesus Christ | Kingdom Doctrines | Holy One". Archived from the original on September 10, 2009.
  41. ^ Duffy, John-Charles (October 15, 2003). "The Making of Immanuel: Brian David Mitchell and the Mormon Fringe". Sunstone magazine. Archived from the original on December 11, 2013.
  42. ^ Manson, Pamela; Neugebauer, Cimaron (December 3, 2010). "Mitchell defense rests in Smart kidnap case". Salt Lake Tribune. p. 6.
  43. ^ a b Andrea Lathan (2008) ‘The Relativity of Categorizing in the Context of the Aḥmadiyya’ Die Welt des Islams, 48 (3/4): 376
  44. ^ Antonio R. Gualtieri (1989). Conscience and Coercion: Ahmadi Muslims and Orthodoxy in Pakistan. Guernica Editions. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-920717-41-7.
  45. ^ "Who are the Ahmadi?". BBC News. 28 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  46. ^ Burhani, Ahmad Najib (2013). When Muslims are not Muslims: the Ahmadiyya community and the discourse on heresy in Indonesia. Santa Barbara, California: University of California. ISBN 9781303424861.
  47. ^ Judith Coney, Sahaja Yoga: Socializing Processes in a South Asian New Religious Movement (1999) p27 "She began her mission of salvation in earnest, establishing a reputation as a faith healer ... Then, on December 2nd 1979, in London, she unequivocally declared her divinity to her followers: '[Today] is the day I declare that I am the One who has to save the humanity. I declare, I am the one who is Adi Shakti, who is the Mother of all the mothers, who is the Primordial Mother, the Shakti, the purest desire of God, who has incarnated on this Earth to give meaning to itself...' Since then, she is most often understood by her followers to be the Devi, the Goddess of Indian mythology, returned to save the world."
  48. ^ "Family Law Attorneys Cumming, GA | Georgia Divorce Lawyers Near Me". www.georgiafamilyattorneys.org. Archived from the original on March 6, 2009.
  49. ^ "Messiah Foundation International Site about Shahi". Messiah Foundation International. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
  50. ^ "Website from Pakistan Sector". goharshahi.pk. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2010.
  51. ^ "Structure and objective of the Mehdi Foundation and the perception of this movement in Pakistan" (PDF). 5 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
  52. ^ "Jail upon burning the Pakistani Passports". British Broadcasting Cooperation (Urdu). 25 April 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  53. ^ "Jail upon burning the Pakistani Passports page 2". British Broadcasting Cooperation (Urdu). 25 April 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  54. ^ "Share International on the Reappearance of Maitreya the World Teacher". share-international.org. Archived from the original on November 2, 2014.
  55. ^ "Share International magazine July / August 2009 issue". www.share-international.org. Archived from the original on April 9, 2014.
  56. ^ Niebuhr, Gustav. "New Millennium, Great Expectations." The New York Times, July 20, 1996

Other sources