메소포타미아 신들의 목록 - List of Mesopotamian deities

Engraving depicting four anthropomorphic deities and two animals
Akkadian 실린더 씰c. 기원전 2300 년, Inanna , Utu , Enki , Isimud [1]
Map depicting ancient Mesopotamian region overlaid with modern landmarks in Iraq and Syria.
현대 랜드 마크와 관련된 메소포타미아 및 주요 도시의 범위를 보여주는지도

고대 메소포타미아의 신들 은 거의 독점적으로 의인화되었습니다 . [2] 그들은 비범 한 힘을 가지고있는 것으로 여겨졌 고 [2] 종종 엄청난 물리적 크기로 상상되었습니다. [2] 신들은 일반적으로 "무서운 화려 함으로 그들을 덮고" [3] 영웅, 왕, 거인, 심지어 악마가 입을 수 있는 모호한 물질 인 멜람을 입었습니다 . [4] 신의 멜람 을 보는 것이 인간 에게 미치는 영향 은 " 육체의 육체적 기는 것 "을 뜻하는 단어 인 ni 로 묘사됩니다 . [5] 상기 양 수메르Akkadian 언어 에는 "두려움"을 의미하는 puluhtu 라는 단어를 포함하여 ni , [4] 의 감각을 표현하는 많은 단어가 포함되어 있습니다 . [5] 신들은 거의 항상 뿔이있는 모자를 쓰고 [6] [7] 최대 7 쌍의 황소 뿔이 겹쳐져 있는 것으로 묘사되었습니다 . [8] 그들은 또한 정교한 장식의 금과은 장신구를 수 놓은 옷을 입고 묘사되기도했다. [7]

고대 메소포타미아 인은 자신의 신성에 살고 있다고 믿고 천국 , [9] 하지만 하나님의 동상은 하나님 자신의 물리적 실시 예는했다. [9] [10] 이처럼 컬트 조각상 은 끊임없는 보살핌과 관심을 받았으며 [11] [9] 사제들이 그들을 돌 보도록 배정되었습니다. [12] 이 제사장들은 조각상을 입히고 [10] 그들이 "먹을"수 있도록 그들 앞에 잔치를 베 풀었습니다. [11] [9] 신의 사원 은 그 신의 문자 그대로 거주하는 장소로 여겨졌습니다. [13] 신들은 배, 실물 크기의 바지선을 가졌다일반적으로 사원 내부에 저장되어 있고 [14] 다양한 종교 축제 기간 동안 수로를 따라 컬트 동상을 운반하는 데 사용되었습니다 . [14] 신들은 또한 그들의 숭배 상을 육로로 운반하는 데 사용되는 병거 를 가지고 있었다. [15] 때때로 신의 숭배 동상은 신이 전투가 펼쳐지는 것을 볼 수 있도록 전투 장소로 옮겨 질 것입니다. [15] 메소포타미아 판테온의 주요 신들은 "조립 신의 '에 참여 믿었다 [6] 신들이 그들의 모든 결정을하게되는. [6] 이 회의는반 민주적 입법 시스템 동안 존재 우르 제 3 왕조 ( . C - 2112 BC . C 2004 BC). [6]

메소포타미아 판테온은 역사를 통해 크게 진화했습니다. [16] 일반적 메소포타미아 종교의 역사는 네 단계로 나눌 수있다. [16] 첫번째 단계 동안, 제 밀레니엄 BC부터, 신성 '도메인은 주로 인간 생존 기본적인 필요에 초점을 맞추었다. [17] 제 밀레니엄 BC에 발생한 두 번째 단계 동안, 신 계층보다 구조화 된 [17] 과 신격 왕 전당를 입력하기 시작했다. [17] 제 단계에서는, 상기 제 밀레니엄 BC에서 평민과 관련된 개인과 개인 신들 경배 신이 더 유행하게되었다. [17]네 번째이자 마지막 단계 인 기원전 1 천년에 신들은 특정 인간 제국 및 통치자들과 밀접하게 연관되었습니다. [18] 3,000 개 이상의 메소포타미아 신의 이름이 설형 문자 텍스트에서 발견되었습니다. [19] [16] 이들의 대부분은 고대 메소포타미아 서기관에 의해 컴파일 신들의 긴 목록에서입니다. [19] [20] 이 목록들 중 가장 긴 것은 An = Antum 이라는 제목 텍스트로 , 2,000 개가 넘는 수메르 신의 이름을 셈족에 상응하는 이름을 나열한 바빌로니아 학자 작품입니다. [19] [17]

아눈 나키는 신들의 그룹이 처음의 재위 기간 동안 증명입니다 구 데아 ( . C - 2124 BC 2144)와 우르의 세 번째 왕조. [21] [22] 원래 아눈 나키 는 "인류의 운명을 선포한다"고 믿었던 엄청난 힘을 가진 천상의 신으로 보인다. [23] [21] [22] 나중에 그들은 chthonic Underworld 신으로 간주되었습니다 . [23] 그것들은 주로 문학 텍스트에서 언급되고 있으며 [22] 그 어떤 숭배의 존재를 뒷받침하는 증거는 아직 발견되지 않았습니다. [24] [22]이것은 Anunnaki의 각 구성원이 다른 사람들과 별개로 자신의 개별 컬트를 가졌기 때문일 것입니다. [21] 마찬가지로, 그룹으로서의 아눈 나키의 표현은 아직 발견되지 않았지만 [21] 개별 구성원에 대한 몇 가지 묘사가 확인되었습니다. [21] 신들의 또 다른 그룹은 아르 Igigi 먼저로부터 증명되고 오래 바빌로니아 기간 ( . C - 1830 BC . (C) 1531 BC)는. [25] 이름 Igigi는 원래 "위대한 신들"열에 적용된 것으로 보인다 [25] 그러나 그것은 나중에 집단적으로 모든 하늘의 신들을 참조했다. [25]어떤 경우에는 AnunnakiIgigi 라는 용어 가 동의어로 사용됩니다. [21] [22]

천국의 삼합회

모든 기간 동안 메소포타미아 판테온에서 가장 중요한 세 신은 , 엔릴 , 엔키 신이었다 . [26] An은 적도 하늘 의 모든 별 , Enlil은 북쪽 하늘의 별 , Enki는 남쪽 하늘 의 별들로 식별되었습니다 . [27] 엔릴의 천체 궤도의 경로는 주변의 연속, 대칭 원이었다 북쪽 하늘 극 , [28] 그러나 및 엔키의 사람들은 여러 지점에서 교차 믿었다. [29]

이름 영상 주요 컬트 센터 천체 세부 관련 색상

아누 [30]
Cuneiform sign for "Anu" or "Heaven"
Uruk의 Eanna 사원 [31] 적도 하늘 [27] [32] 이상 아누 또는 공지 (수메르 중에서), ILU (아카디아에서)는 [33] 하늘에 의해 구체화 최고 신과 "창조 원동기"이다. [30] 그는 첫 번째이자 가장 먼 조상이다 [30] 신학의 "초월 무명 '천국의 하나님으로 생각. [34] 모든 신들은 안과 그의 배우자 (참조, 아눈 나키 ) 의 후손으로 여겨졌다 . [30] [35] [22] An이 최고의 신 이었지만, [36] [30] 적어도 가장 초기 기록이있을 무렵에는 컬트가 Enlil 에게 크게 헌신했습니다 . [37] [38] Luludanitu ; 빨강, 흰색 및 검정의 앙상블 [39]
엔릴
누남 니르, 엘릴 [40] [41]
Ancient Persian cylinder seal dating to between 550 and 330 BC, depicting an unidentified king wearing the horned crown, Enlil's primary symbol
Nippur의 Ekur 사원 [42] [43] 북쪽 하늘 [27] [32] 나중에 Ellil로 알려진 Enlil은 바람, 공기, 땅, 폭풍의 신 [40] 이며 모든 신의 우두머리입니다. [44] 그는 신학 "으로 생각된다 초월 의 AN"패싯. [45] 수메르 인들은 엔릴을 인류를 돌보고 그들의 안녕을 돌보는 자비 롭고 아버지의 신으로 상상했습니다. [46] 한 수메르의 찬송가는 심지어 다른 신들이 그를 바라 볼 수 없다는 것을 너무 영광으로 엔릴을 설명합니다. [41] [47] 그의 숭배는 성스러운 도시인 Nippur와 밀접하게 연관되어 있었고 [43] BC 1230 년에 Nippur가 Elamites의해 약탈 된 후 , 그의 종파는 쇠퇴했습니다. [48]그는 결국 바빌로니아 민족의 신인 마르둑 (Marduk )에 의해 주된 신으로서의 역할과 유사하게되었습니다 . [48] 청금석 -블루 [39] [49]
Enki
Nudimmud, Ninshiku, Ea [50]
Detail of Enki from the Adda Seal, an ancient Akkadian cylinder seal dating to circa 2300 BC
Eridu의 E-Abzu 사원 [50] 남쪽 하늘 [27] [32] 나중에 Ea로 알려진 Enki는 때때로 Nudimmud 또는 Ninšiku라고도 불리는 지하 담수 바다의 신으로 [50] 지혜, 마법, 주문, 예술 및 공예와 밀접한 관련이 있습니다. [50] 그는의 아들, 또는 여신 중 하나입니다 남무 , [50] 과의 쌍둥이 동생이다 Ishkur은 . [50] 그는 신학 "으로 생각된다 내재적 의 AN"패싯. [45] 그의 아내는 여신 담갈 누나 ( Ninhursag ) 이고 [50] 그의 아들은 신 Marduk , Asarluhi , Enbilulu를 포함합니다., 현자 Adapa , 여신 Nanshe . [50]sukkal 또는 장관 이중적 톡 신 Isimud이 . [50] 엔키는 인류의 하나님의 은인이다 [50] 도와 준 인간이 생존 대홍수를 . [50] 에서 엔키와 세계 질서는 , 그는 "구체적으로 문명 세계의 모든 기능을."개최 [50] 에서 인안 나와 엔키는 그가 신성한 보유자 인 MES , 인간 생활의 모든면에 관한 정제. [50] 재스퍼 -그린 [39] [49]

일곱 행성의 신

숫자 7은 고대 메소포타미아 우주론에서 매우 중요했습니다. [51] [52] 에서 수메르 종교 , 판테온에서 가장 강력하고 중요한 신들이 있었다 "일곱 신들이 사람 법령" [53] AN, 엔릴, 엔키, 닌 후르 사그 , 난나 , 우투 , 그리고 인안 나 . [54] 수메르 신화의 많은 주요 신들은 특정 천체와 관련이 있습니다. [55] Inanna는 금성 행성으로 , [56] [32] Utu는 태양, [57] [32] 및 Nanna 로 여겨졌습니다. 달이었다. [58][32] 나중에 메소포타미아 사람들은 이러한 연합을 채택하고 육안으로 볼 수있는 7 개의 천체가 모두 주요 신으로 식별 될 때까지자신의 신을 고전 행성에 할당했습니다. [59] 현대의 7 일 주간 은 고대 바빌로니아 인들에게서 시작되었으며, [60] 매일 일곱 행성의 신 중 하나와 연관되어있었습니다. [60]

이름 영상 주요 컬트 센터 천체 세부 관련 금속 및 색상 [주 1]
우투
샤마시 [62]
Representation of Shamash from the Tablet of Shamash (c. 888 – 855 BC), showing him sitting on his throne dispensing justice while clutching a rod-and-ring symbol
SipparLarsa의 E-Babbar 사원 [63] 태양 [62] 나중에 샤마 슈로 알려진 우투는, 태양의 고대 메소포타미아의 신, [62] 도 진리, 정의, 도덕의 신으로 숭배되었다. [63] 그는 난나의 아들과 인안 나의 쌍둥이 동생이었다. Inanna는 또한 지하 세계의 통치자 인 Mesopotamian Dead of the Dead의 여왕 인 Irkalla와 Allatu로 알려진 Ereshkigal이라는 자매가있었습니다. 그녀의 이름은 '위대한 여왕'또는 '위대한 장소의 여인'으로 번역됩니다. [62] 태양신은 낮 동안 일어나는 모든 일을보고 [63] 필사자를 곤경에 빠뜨리는 것을 돕는 것으로 믿어졌습니다 . [63] 그의 여동생 인안 나 외에도, 우투는 하나님의 공의 집행자였다. [64] , 황색 [65]
Nanna-Suen
Nanna, Enzu, Zuen, Suen, Sin [66]
Nanna-Suen depicted in a cylinder seal impression
Ur의 E-kiš-nu-ğal 사원 Harran의 또 다른 사원 [58] [58] 수메르어로 Nanna, Enzu 또는 Zuen ( "지혜의 제왕")은 나중에 Akkadian에서 Suen과 Sin으로 변경되어 [66] 고대 메소포타미아의 달 신입니다. [58] 그는 Enlil과 Ninlil 의 아들이었고 그의 가장 유명한 신화 중 하나는 그가 어떻게 잉태되었는지와 그가 어떻게 Underworld에서 Nippur로 나아 갔는지에 대한 설명이었습니다. [58] 달 신의 주요 신들 중에서 중요한 역할을; 아시리아 밀교 문학에서 그는 플레로마 , 즉 모든 신의 힘의 합, 즉 An 자체 를 상징하는 것으로 간주 됩니다. [67] 달 신의 초승달 모양은 메소포타미아 사원의 교두 꼭대기에 그려져 있습니다. [68] 실버 , 그린 [69] [참고 2]
Nergal
Ancient Parthian carving of the god Nergal from Hatra, dating to the first or second century AD
KuthaMashkan-shapir에 있는 E-Meslam 사원 [58] 화성 [71] Nergal은 Underworld [72] 와 관련이 있으며 일반적으로 Ereshkigal 의 남편입니다 . [72] 그는 또한 산불 (불의 신 Gibil [73] 과 동일시 됨 ), 발열, 전염병 및 전쟁과 관련이 있었다. [72] 신화, 그 파괴 파괴시킨다. [72] 아이언 , 레드 [74] [주 3]
나부
Statue of Nabu from his temple at Nimrud, on display at the British Museum
보르 시파 [76] 수은 [76] 나부는 메소포타미아의 서기관과 글쓰기의 신이었다. [76] 그의 아내는 여신 Tashmetu [76] 였고 그는 행성 Mercury 와 연관되었을지도 모릅니다 . [76] 그는 나중에 지혜와 농업과 관련된되었다. [76] 수은 , 주황색 [74] [참고 4]
Marduk
Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu, from a Babylonian cylinder seal
바빌론 [78] [48] 목성 [79] Marduk는 바빌로니아 의 국가 신입니다 . [78] 그의 숭배의 확장은 바빌론의 역사적 부상과 밀접하게 유사했고, [78] [48] Asarluhi 라는 신을 포함한 다양한 지역 신들을 동화시킨 후 , 그는 결국 신의 우두머리로서 Enlil과 유사하게되었습니다. [78] [48] 그의 아내는 여신이었다 Sarpānītu은 . [78] 주석 , 흰색 [80]
Inanna
Ishtar [81]
Babylonian terracotta relief of Ishtar from Eshnunna (early second millennium BC)
Uruk의 Eanna 사원, [82] [56] [31] Nippur , Lagash , Shuruppak , ZabalamUr 에도 사원이 있었지만 [82] 금성 [56] 나중에 Ishtar로 알려진 Inanna는 "모든 기간 동안 고대 메소포타미아의 가장 중요한 여성 신"입니다. [81] 그녀는 사랑, 성, 성매매, 전쟁의 수메르 여신이었다. [83] 그녀는 금성, 아침과 저녁 별의 하나님의 화신이었다. [56] 그녀 혈통 달라질 계정; [81] 대부분의 신화에서 그녀는 보통 Nanna와 Ningal의 딸로 제시 되지만 [84] 다른 이야기에서는 그녀가 알 수없는 어머니와 함께 Enki 또는 An의 딸입니다. [81] 수메르 인은 다른 어떤 신보다 그녀에 대한 자세한 신화가 있었다. [85] [86]그녀와 관련된 많은 신화는 다른 신들의 영토를 장악하려는 시도를 중심으로 전개됩니다. [87] 그녀의 가장 유명한 신화는 그녀의 이야기 지하로 하강 , [88] 하는 그녀는 언니가 언더, 그녀의 도메인을 정복하려고 Ereshkigal , [88] 그러나 대신하여 죽은 강타 의 일곱 명 심사 위원 언더 월드 . [89] [90] [91] 그녀는 Enki의 개입으로 인해 살아 남았습니다. [89] [90] [91] 그녀의 남편 Dumuzid 는 언더 월드에서 그녀의 자리를 차지하게됩니다. [92] [93]쌍둥이 형제 Utu와 함께 Inanna는 신성한 정의 의 집행자였습니다 . [64] 구리 , 청색 [80]
Ninurta
Ninĝirsu [94]
Ninurta shown in a palace relief from Nineveh
니 푸르에서 E-SU-ME-SA 사원, [94] 기르 수 , [95] 라가시 , [96] [97] 이상 Kalhu앗시리아 [98] [99] [100] 토성 [101] Ningirsu라고도 알려진 Ninurta는 아주 초기부터 수메르에서 숭배되었던 메소포타미아의 전사 신이었습니다. [94] 그는 그의 아버지 Enlil에게서 운명석판을 훔친 후 Anzû에 대항하는 신들의 챔피언이었으며 [94] 많은 작품에서 암시되었지만 완전히 보존되지 않은 신화에서 그는 "Slain Heroes"로 알려진 전사. [94] 닌 우르 타는 농업 신성 농부의 수호신도 있었다. [94] 서사시에서 Lugal-E , 그는 악마 치료할 Asag 구축하고 사용 돌 티그리스유프라테스관개에 유용하도록 강. [99] 그의 주요 문자가 자리 잡고 새와 쟁기했다. [102] , 검정 [80]

원시 존재

메소포타미아 역사의 다양한 문명은 다양한 창조 이야기를 가지고있었습니다 . [103] [104] 생성의 초기 계정 늦은 제 밀레니엄 BC에 수메르 데이트 작성된 단순한 서술한다. [105] [106] 이 주로 같은 다른 주제를 다루는 더 mythographic 조성물의 간단한 프롤로그로서 보존 인안 나하고 Huluppu 트리 , 도끼 생성 하고 엔키와 Ninmah . [107] [105] 나중에 계정 신들과 원시 인간의 여러 세대를 추가, 훨씬 더 정교하다. [108]이 계정의 가장 길고 가장 유명한 바빌로니아 인 에 누마 엘리시 , 또는 창조의 서사시 칠 정제로 나누어 져 있습니다. [106] 살아남은 Enûma Eliš 버전은 기원전 2 천년 후반 이전에 작성 될 수 없었지만 [106] 이전 자료를 많이 사용했습니다. [109] Akkadian, Old Babylonian 및 기원전 2 천년 초의 Kassite 시대. [109]

이름 영상 세부
압주 바빌로니아 창조 서사시 Enûma Eliš 에서 Abzu 는 원시 불확정성 이며 [110] Ea (Enki) 신에 의해 살해 된 여신 Tiamat 의 배우자입니다 . [110] ABZU는 지하 원시 물의 의인화이었다. [110]
AnsharKishar 일부 동부 셈족 신화에서 Anshar와 Kishar는 각각 남성과 여성 인 원시 부부입니다. [23] 바빌로니아 Enûma Eliš 에서 그들은 Abzu 와 Tiamat [23] 에서 태어난 두 번째 후손 이자 최고의 An의 부모입니다. [23]
Ki는 지구 자체를 의인화하는 수메르 여신입니다. [111] 일부 수메르 계정, 그녀는 다양한 식물을 생산하기 위해 함께 copulates 원시되고있다. [112] 기는 엔릴의 어머니 [113] 과 수메르 인은 엔릴은 그녀를 분리 할 때 세상이 시작 믿었다. [113] 그녀는 닌 후르 사그, 지구 여신의 또 다른 이름 일 수 있습니다. [114] [115]
남무 Nammu는 일부 수메르 전통에서 An과 Ki 를 모두 낳은 것으로 알려진 원시 여신입니다 . [116] 그녀는 결국 엔키의 어머니로 여겨지게되었다 [116] 과 중요한 어머니 여신으로 숭배되었다. [116] 그녀의 이름을 작성하는 데 사용 된 설형 문자 기호의 기호와 동일하기 때문에 engur , 동의어 ABZU은 , 그녀가 원래 지하 원시 바다의 화신으로 생각되었다 가능성이 매우 높다이다. [116]
티아마트
Neo-Assyrian cylinder seal impression from the eighth century BC identified by several sources as a possible depiction of the slaying of Tiamat from the Enûma Eliš
바빌로니아 창조 서사시 Enûma Eliš 에서 하늘과 땅이 분리 된 후 여신 Tiamat과 그녀의 배우자 Abzu 는 현존하는 유일한 신입니다. [117] A는 암수 한 쌍들은 짝과 티아마트 신들 1 세대 낳는다. [117] 에아 (엔키) 학살 ABZU [117] 와 티아마트는 그녀의 애인의 죽음에 대한 복수를 추구하는 열한 괴물 탄생을 제공합니다. [117] 결국, 마르둑, 엔키의 아들과 바벨론의 국가 신, 티아마트 학살과 지구를 만들기 위해 그녀의 시체를 사용합니다. [117] 의 이야기 앗시리아 버전에서는 사람 치료할 티아마트 대신 아슈르이다. [117]Tiamat는 원시 바다의 의인화였으며 Enûma Eliš 의 저자가 그녀의 모습을 어떻게 상상 했는지 말하기는 어렵습니다 . [117]

다른 주요 신들

이름 영상 주요 컬트 센터 세부
Ashur
A Neo-Assyrian "feather robed archer" figure, symbolizing Ashur
어 슈르 [118] 아슈르는 국립 신 아시리아 , [118] 엔릴과 syncretized 누가. [119] 그는 원래의 도시와 관련된 지역 신되었을 수도 앗수르 , [118] 아시리아 제국의 성장하지만, [118] 그의 숭배는 남부 메소포타미아에 소개되었다. [120]
다간
다곤
Mari , Ebla , Ugarit [121] Dagan은 메소포타미아를 포함하여 근동 전체에서 숭배를 받기 위해 온 서부 셈족 곡물의 신입니다. [121] 일 개 전통에 따르면, 다간 쟁기를 발명했다. [121] 다간은 엔릴에 사소한 교환 신성 등 조속히 메리아 신들로 흡수되었다. [121] 그의 숭배는 바빌로니아 왕 함무라비에 의해 광범위하게 추진되었으며 , 그는 다간이 그가 모든 메소포타미아를 정복 할 수 있도록 허용했다고 주장했습니다. [121] 아시리아시에 다간은 하층의 판정 중 하나이다. [121] Dagan은 한때 예술 작품에 물고기가있는 인물로 잘못 등장했다고 가정했지만, [121]이것은 이제 부정확 한 것으로 알려져 있습니다. [121]
두무 지드 담
무즈 [122]
Ancient Sumerian cylinder seal impression showing Dumuzid being tortured in the Underworld by the galla demons
바드 - 티비 라 하고 Kuara [122] 나중에 부패한 형태의 탐 무즈로 알려진 Dumuzid 는 고대 메소포타미아의 목자들의 신이며 [122] 여신 Inanna의 주요 배우자입니다. [122] 여동생은 여신 Geshtinanna이 . [122] [123] 목동 신 인에 첨가는 Dumuzid는 식물의 성장과 관련된 농업 신했다. [124] [125] 고대 근동 민족들은 땅이 비옥하고 풍요로운 봄날과 Dumuzid를 연관 시켰지만, [124] [126] 땅이 건조하고 황량한 여름철에는 Dumuzid가 "죽었다". [124] [127]한여름에 떨어진 Dumuzid의 달 동안 Sumer 전역의 사람들은 그의 죽음에 대해 슬퍼했습니다. [128] [129] 그의 죽음을 둘러싼 수많은 인기 이야기가 근동 전역에 퍼졌다. [128] [129]
에레 슈 키갈
The "Burney Relief," which is believed to represent either Ereshkigal or her younger sister Ishtar (c. 19th or 18th century BC)
쿠타 Ereshkigal은 Mesopotamian Underworld의 여왕입니다. [130] [131] 그녀 Ganzir라고도 궁전에서 살았다. [130] 이전 이야기에서 그녀의 남편은 Gugalanna , [130] 이지만 나중에 신화에서 그녀의 남편은 Nergal입니다. [130] [131] 그녀 키퍼는 신이었다 Neti [131] 그녀 sukkal은 신이다 Namtar . [130] 시에 하층에 인안 나의 하강 , Ereshkigal은 인안 나의 「언니」로 설명한다. [132]
Geshtinanna Nippur, Isin 및 Uruk [133] Geshtinanna는 때때로 꿈의 해석 과 관련된 농촌 농업의 여신 입니다. [134] 그녀 Dumuzid, 목동 신의 자매이다. [134] 때 하나 개의 이야기에서, 그녀는 그녀의 오빠를 보호 갈라의 악마가 연속적으로 네 개의 다른 장소에서 그를 숨겨 지하에 그를 끌어 온다. [134] 다른 버전의 이야기에서, 그녀는 그녀 를 고문 한 후에도 그가 숨어있는 곳을 갈라 에게 알리기를 거부합니다 . [134] 갈라는 결국 그가 무명 '친구'에 의해 배신되는 거리 후 Dumuzid을 [134]그러나 Inanna는 그와 Geshtinanna가 6 개월마다 교대로 자리를 옮길 것을 선언합니다. 각각은 반년을 언더 월드에서 보내고 다른 하나는 천국에 머무 릅니다. [134] 그녀가 하층에있는 동안은 Geshtinanna Ereshkigal 스크라이브의 역할을한다. [134]
길가메시
Possible representation of Gilgamesh as Master of Animals, grasping a lion in his left arm and snake in his right hand, in an Assyrian palace relief, from Dur-Sharrukin, now held in the Louvre
UrukUr 근처의 작은 마을 [135] 대부분의 역사가들은 일반적으로 길가메쉬가의 수메르의 도시 국가의 역사적인 왕 동의 우르크 , [135] [136] 아마의 초기 부분에서 언젠가 지배 초기 왕조 시대 ( C. 2900에서 2350 사이 BC가). [135] [136] 는 후의 초기 왕조 기간 길가메쉬 수메르 걸쳐 다양한 위치 신으로 경배 하였다 것이 확실하다. [135]는 21 세기 BC에서 유투 헨갈 , 우르크 왕 그의 수호신으로 길가메쉬을 채택했다. [135] 우르의 제 3 왕조의 왕들은 특히 길가메쉬를 좋아하여 그를 "신성한 형제"와 "친구"라고 불렀습니다. [135]이 기간 동안 그를 둘러싼 수많은 신화와 전설이 발전했습니다. [135] 아마 동안 중간 바빌로니아 기간 ( C. 1600 BC - . (C) 1155 BC)라는 스크라이브 신 레키 어니 니 합성 길가메시 에픽 , 서사시 작성된 아카디아 나레이션 길가메쉬의 영웅 악용. [135] 시의 개구는 "1/3 인간 2/3 신성"로 길가메쉬 설명한다. [135]
Gula
Nintinugga, Ninkarrak, Meme, Bau, Ninisina [137]
Fragment Bau Louvre AO4572.jpg
Isin의 E-gal-mah 사원 과 Nippur, Borsippa 및 Assur의 다른 사원 [137] Nintinugga, Ninkarrak, Meme, Bau 및 Ninisina라고도 알려진 Gula는 메소포타미아의 치유의 여신이자 의사와 의료 종사자의 신성한 후원자입니다. [137] 개는 그녀에게 신성한 것으로 간주되었고 [137] 그녀는 종종 그녀 옆에 앉아있는 개와 함께 예술에 나타납니다. [137] 그녀는 때때로 닌 우르 타이나의 아내 파빌 사그 , [137] 뿐만 아니라 때때로 작은 식물 신 결혼되는 것으로 설명한다 아부 . [137]
Ishkur
Adad [138]
Assyrian soldiers of Ashurbanipal carrying a statue of Adad
Karkara와 Assur [139] 나중에 Adad로 알려진 Ishkur는 폭풍과 비의 메소포타미아 신입니다. [138] 그는 때때로 Hurrian 신 Teshub 와 Kassite 신 Buriash합쳐졌다 . [138] 그의 아내는 여신이다 샬라가 . [138] 그는 보통의 아들이지만, 오래된 전통, 그는 엔릴의 아들이다. [138]
Ištaran Der [139] Ištaran은 메소포타미아와 엘람 사이의 경계에있는 티그리스 강 동쪽에 위치한 수메르 도시 국가 Der 의 지역 신입니다 . [139] 부인 그의 이름 수단 "데르 퀸"여신 Šarrat-DERI이다 [139] 및 그의 sukkal을 뱀 신이었다 Nirah이 . [139] 초기 왕조 시대의 텍스트는 Lagash와 Umma 사이의 경계 분쟁을 해결하기 위해 Ištaran을 호출합니다 . [139] 그의 비문 중 하나에서, 왕 구 데아 라가시의는 자신의 성전에서 Ištaran의 신사를 설치 한 언급 Ningirsu 에서 기르 수 [139]Ištaran을 정의의 신으로 묘사합니다. [139] 에서 kudurrus (경계 돌) Ištaran 종종 Nirah 될 수도 뱀에 의해 표현된다 [139] 또는 Ištaran 자신. [140] 연관된 의식에서 Ekur의 니 푸르 사원, Ištaran는 "죽음 신"이고 동일시된다 Dumuzid . [140] 그의 컬트는 바빌로니아 중기 동안 쇠퇴 해졌고, 그 이후 그는 더 이상 개인적인 이름으로 나타나지 않았습니다. [139]
Nanshe
Relief of Nanshe
Lagash [76] Nanshe는 Lagash시와 관련된 지역 여신입니다. [58] 그녀는 엔키의 딸과의 자매이다 Ningirsu은 . [58] 그녀는 점술 과 꿈의 해석과 관련 이 있습니다. [58] 그녀는 또한 가난한 사람들과 가난한 사람들을 돕고 [58] 무게와 측정의 정확성을 보장 한다고 믿었습니다 . [58]
니나 즈 Eshnunna (나중에 Hurrian 폭풍의 신 Tishpak으로 대체 ) [141] Ninazu가의 아들 Ereshkigal 과의 아버지 Ningishzida . [141] 그는 밀접 하층과 연관된다. [141] 그는 대부분의 숭배 에쉬 눈나 세 번째 천년 BC 동안, 그러나 그는 나중에 Hurrian 폭풍의 신으로 대체되었다 Tishpak . [141] "Ninazu"이라는 신 또한 참배 하였다 Enegi 남부 수메르에서 [141] 그러나이 같은 이름의 다른 지역의 신이 될 수있다. [141] 그의 신 야수이었다 mušḫuššu 나중에 마르둑 Tishpak에 다음 주어 용의 종류. [141]
Ningal
Nikkal [142]
우르하란 [142] 나중에 손상된 형태 인 Nikkal로 알려진 Ningal은 달의 신인 Nanna-Suen의 아내이자 태양의 신인 Utu의 어머니였습니다. [142]
Ningishzida
The "libation vase of Gudea" dedicated to Ningishzida, who is shown in the form of a serpent
Lagash [143] Ningishzida는 일반적으로 지하 세계에 사는 신입니다. [142] 그는의 아들 Ninazu는 그의 이름은 어원으로 "좋은 나무의 제왕"을 의미하는 문구에서 유래 할 수있다. [142] 메리아시에서는 길가메쉬 죽음 영웅 길가메쉬를 함께 다이 및 Ningishzida을 충족 Dumuzid 언더에서. [143] 구 데아 의 도시 국가의 수메르 왕 라가시 , 자신의 개인 보호기로 Ningishzida을 추앙. [143] 의 신화 Adapa , Dumuzid 및 Ningishzida 높은 천의 게이트를 지키고으로 설명한다. [144]Ningishzida는 별자리 Hydra 와 관련이 있습니다. [145]
Ninhursag
Damgalnuna, Ninmah [145]
Akkadian cylinder seal impression depicting a vegetation goddess, possibly Ninhursag, sitting on a throne surrounded by worshippers (circa 2350-2150 BC)
Adab의 E-Mah 사원 [145] Damgalnuna 및 Ninmah로도 알려진 Ninhursag는 농업 비옥함과 관련된 수메르의 어머니 여신 입니다. [145] 많은 신들은 그녀의 후손이며, [145] 많은 필멸의 통치자들도 그녀를 그들의 어머니라고 주장했습니다. [145] 그녀는 또한 엔키의 주요 배우자입니다. [145] 의 신화 엔키 및 Ninhursaga , 엔키와 닌 후르 사그 성을 가지고 닌 후르 사그는 엔키 강간, 엔키 강간 각각 누구의 딸의 문자열 결과 딸 낳는다. [145] 그녀의 주요 사원은 Adab의 E-Mah 였지만 [145] 그녀는 또한 Kesh 시와 관련이있었습니다. [145]그녀는 때때로 "Kesh의 Bēlet-ilī"또는 "Kesh의 그녀"라고 불립니다. [145] 그녀의 주요 상징 중 하나는 나중에 그리스 문자 닮은 신성한 상징 인 오메가 . [146]
닌릴 NippurAssur [147] Ninlil은 신들의 통치자 Enlil의 아내였습니다. [145] 그녀는 아마도 엔릴 메스 동등 발명 인공적으로 만든 신했다. [145] 그녀 엔릴 파와 파워를 갖는 것으로 간주되었다; [148] 한시에서 Ninlil은 "Enlil이 당신의 주인이므로 나도 당신의 여주인입니다!"라고 선언합니다. [148]
닌슈 부르
Ninshubur depicted in a cylinder seal impression (c. 2334-2154 BC)
Inanna와 그녀의 sukkal 로 숭배 Ninshubur 는 여신 Inanna sukkal 또는 개인 수행자입니다. [94] [149] [150] 그녀는 여주인에 대한 그녀의 헌신에서 "동요 할 수없는 충성"으로 묘사된다. [149] 의 수메르 신화 인안 나와 엔키 , Ninshubur 엔키는 그녀 캡처 전송하는 몬스터 인안 나 구출. [151] [152] [149] Inanna의 지하 세계로의 강림에 대한 수메르 신화 에서 Ninshubur는 모든 신에게 Inanna를 지하 세계에서 구출하도록 설득하기 위해 모든 신들에게 간청합니다. [153] [154] 큰 지혜와 지식의 원천 인에의 첨가는, [149] Ninshubur 또한 전사 여신.[149] She was the guardian and messenger of the god An.[149] She is said to have walked in front of An wherever he went, a position traditionally reserved for a bodyguard.[149] In later Akkadian mythology, Ninshubur was syncretized with the male messenger deity Papsukkal.[150][155]
Nisaba Lagash, Umma, and later Eresh[99] Nisaba, also known as Nanibgal, was originally a goddess of grain and agriculture,[99] but, starting in the Early Dynastic Period, she developed into a goddess of writing, accounting, and scribal knowledge.[99] She was the daughter of Enlil and the sister of Ningirsu.[99] In earlier times, her husband was the god Haya,[99] but, in later times, she came to be regarded as the wife of Nabu, the god of scribes.[99]

Minor deities

Name Image Major cult centers Details
Ama-arhus Uruk[156] Ama-arhus is a fertility goddess who was worshipped in Uruk during the Hellenistic Period.[156]
Amasagnul Amasagnul is a goddess who is thought to have been the consort of the messenger god Papsukkal.[157]
Amashilama
Leach
In the collection of laments entitled In the Desert by the Early Grass, Amashilama is a divine leech and the sister of the god Damu, who has died and gone to the Underworld.[158] At her son's request, Damu's mother digs up his blood and chops it into pieces.[158] She gives the congealed blood to Amashilama, who mixes it into a brew of beer, which Damu must drink in order to be restored to life.[158] Damu, however, realizes that he is dead and declares that he is not in the "grass which shall grow for his mother again", nor in the "waters which will rise".[158] Damu's mother blesses him[158] and Amashilama dies to join him in the Underworld.[158] She tells him that "the day that dawns for you will also dawn for me; the day you see, I shall also see",[158] referring to the fact that day in the world above is night in the Underworld.[158]
Antu
Sky with clouds
Antu is a goddess who was invented during the Akkadian Period (c. 2334 BC – 2154 BC) as a consort for Anu.[30][36] Her name is a female version of Anu's own.[30][36] The Akkadians believed that rain was milk from the clouds,[159] which they believed were Antu's breasts.[159] According to the German classical scholar Walter Burkert, the Greek goddess Dione, mentioned in Book V of the Iliad as the mother of Aphrodite, is probably a calque for Antu.[160]
Anunītu Agade and Sippar[161] Anunītu was a minor Babylonian goddess who was believed to aid women in childbirth.[23] She was later considered to be merely an aspect of Inanna.[23] Eventually, this aspect of Inanna became associated with the constellation Pisces.[162]
Asarluhi Kuara[163] Asarluhi was originally a local god of the village of Kuara, which was located near the city of Eridu.[163] He eventually became regarded as a god of magical knowledge[163] and was thought to be the son of Enki and Ninhursag.[163] He was later absorbed as an aspect of Marduk.[163] In the standard Babylonian magical tradition, the name "Asarluhi" is used as merely an alternative name for Marduk.[163]
Ashgi Adab and Kesh[164] Ashgi is the brother of the goddess Lisin.[164]
Ashnan Ashnan is the goddess of grain.[165] In the Sumerian poem The Dispute between Cattle and Grain, she and her sister Lahar are created by the Anunnaki to provide them with food.[166] They produce large amounts of food,[167] but become drunk with wine and start to quarrel, so Enki and Enlil intervene, declaring Ashnan the victor.[168]
Aruru Aruru is a mother goddess, possibly the same as Ninhursag.[76]
Bel of Babylon
Nineteenth-century engraving by Gustave Doré, showing the scene from "Bel and the Dragon" in which Daniel reveals the deception of the Babylonian priests of Bel
Babylon[169][170] During the first millennium BC, the Babylonians worshipped a deity under the title "Bel", meaning "lord", who was a syncretization of Marduk, Enlil, and the dying god Dumuzid.[169][170] Bel held all the cultic titles of Enlil[170] and his status in the Babylonian religion was largely the same.[170] Eventually, Bel came to be seen as the god of order and destiny.[170] The cult of Bel is a major component of the Jewish story of "Bel and the Dragon" from the apocryphal additions to Daniel.[171]
Belet-Seri Belet-Seri is a chthonic Underworld goddess who was thought to record the names of the deceased as they entered the Underworld.[172]
Birtum Birtum is an obscure minor god, the husband of the goddess Nungal.[173][174]
Bull of Heaven
Cylinder seal showing the Bull of Heaven
The Bull of Heaven is a mythical beast that Ishtar demands from her father Anu in both the Sumerian poem Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven and in Tablet VI of the Standard Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh after Gilgamesh repudiates her sexual advances.[175] Anu gives it to her and she unleashes it on the world, causing mass destruction.[175] Gilgamesh and Enkidu eventually slay the bull.[175] The Bull of Heaven is identified with the constellation Taurus[175] and the reason why Enkidu hurls the bull's thigh at Ishtar in the Epic of Gilgamesh after defeating it may be an effort to explain why the constellation seems to be missing its hind quarters.[175]
Bunene Sippar, Uruk, and Assur[63] Bunene is the sukkal and charioteer of the sun-god Utu.[63] He was worshipped at Sippar and Uruk during the Old Babylonian Period[63] and was later worshipped at Assur.[63] According to some accounts, he may have been Utu's son.[63]
Damu Isin, Larsa, Ur, and Girsu[176] Damu is a god who presides over healing and medicine.[176] He is usually the son of Ninisina and Ningishzida, or is identical to Ningishzida himself.[176] In some texts, "Damu" is used as another name for Dumuzid,[177] but this may be a different word meaning "son".[177] Another god named "Damu" was also worshipped in Ebla and Emar,[176] but this may be a local hero, not the same as the god of healing.[176] The official cult of Damu became extinct sometime after the Old Babylonian Period.[176]
Dingirma Dingirma is a mother goddess whose name means "exalted deity".[76] She may just be another name for Ninhursag.[76]
Dumu-zi-abzu Kinunir[128] Dumu-zi-abzu is a local goddess who was worshipped in the village of Kinunir, near the city-state of Lagash.[128] Her name, which probably means "good child of the Abzu",[128] was sometimes abbreviated to Dumu-zi,[128] but she has no obvious connection to the god Dumuzid.[128]
Emesh Emesh is a farmer deity in the Sumerian poem Enlil Chooses the Farmer-God (ETCSL 5.3.3), which describes how Enlil, hoping "to establish abundance and prosperity", creates two gods: Emesh and Enten, a farmer and a shepherd respectively.[178] The two gods argue and Emesh lays claim to Enten's position.[179] They take the dispute before Enlil, who rules in favor of Enten.[180] The two gods rejoice and reconcile.[180]
Enkimdu Enkimdu is described as the "lord of dike and canal".[41] He appears in the myth of Inanna Prefers the Farmer as a wealthy farmer who competes with Dumuzid for Inanna's affection.[181][182] He is the son of Enki and is closely associated with Enbilulu.[41] He is sometimes identified as a form of Ishkur or as an alternate name for Marduk.[41]
Enmesharra Enmesharra is a minor deity of the Underworld.[41] Seven or eight other minor deities were said to be his offspring.[41] His symbol was the suššuru (a kind of pigeon).[41] In one incantation, Enmesharra and Ninmesharra, his female counterpart, are invoked as ancestors of Enki and as primeval deities.[41]
Ennugi Ennugi is "the canal inspector of the gods".[130] He is the son of Enlil or Enmesarra[130] and his wife is the goddess Nanibgal.[130] He is associated with the Underworld[41] and he may be Gugalanna, the first husband of Ereshkigal, under a different name.[130]
Enten Enten is a shepherd deity in the Sumerian poem Enlil Chooses the Farmer-God (ETCSL 5.3.3), which describes how Enlil, hoping "to establish abundance and prosperity", creates two gods: Emesh and Enten, a farmer and a shepherd respectively.[178] The two gods argue and Emesh lays claim to Enten's position.[179] They take the dispute before Enlil, who rules in favor of Enten.[180] The two gods rejoice and reconcile.[180]
Enzag Dilmun[130] Enzag is one of several deities created by the sexual union of Enki and Ninhursag.[130] He is described as the "lord of Dilmun".[130] In another text, he is referred to as the "Nabu of Dilmun".[130]
Erra
Amulet to ward off plague.jpg
Erra is a warlike god who is associated with pestilence and violence.[183][184] He is the son of the sky-god An[183] and his wife is an obscure, minor goddess named Mami, who is different from the mother goddess with the same name.[183][185] As early as the Akkadian Period, Erra was already associated with Nergal[183][184] and he eventually came to be seen as merely an aspect of him.[183][184] The names came to be used interchangeably.[183]
Erragal
Errakal
Erragal, also known as Errakal, is a relatively rarely-attested deity who was usually regarded as a form of Erra,[184] but the two gods are probably of separate origin.[186] He is connected with storms and the destruction caused by them.[185] In An = Anum I 316, Erragal is listed as the husband of the goddess Ninisig and is equated with Nergal.[185] in the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Atra-Hasis Epic, Errakal is said to "tear up the mooring poles", causing the Great Flood.[185]
Gareus Uruk Gareus was a god introduced to Uruk during late antiquity by the Parthians,[187] who built a small temple to him there in around 100 AD.[187] He was a syncretic deity, combining elements of Greco-Roman and Babylonian cults.[187]
Gatumdug Lagash and later Girsu[188] Gatumdug is a goddess associated with the city-state of Lagash.[188] She was later equated with Bau.[188]
Gibil
Large bonfire
Gibil is the deification of fire.[134] As such, he represents fire in all of its destructive and creative aspects.[134] According to Jeremy Black and Anthony Green, he "represented fire in all its aspects: as a destructive force and as the burning heat of the Mesopotamian summer; and as a creative force, the fire in the blacksmith's furnace and the fire in the kiln where bricks are baked, and so as a 'founder of cities'."[134] He is traditionally said to be the son of An and Shala,[134] but is sometimes the son of Nusku.[173]
Gugalanna Gugalanna is the first husband of Ereshkigal, the queen of the Underworld.[130] His name probably originally meant "canal inspector of An"[130] and he may be merely an alternative name for Ennugi.[130] The son of Ereshkigal and Gugalanna is Ninazu.[130] In Inanna's Descent into the Underworld, Inanna tells the gatekeeper Neti that she is descending to the Underworld to attend the funeral of "Gugalanna, the husband of my elder sister Ereshkigal".[130][189][132]
Gunura Gunura is a deity of uncertain status. The deity is described in some sources as the husband of the goddess Ninsun and the father of Damu, but in other sources as the sister of Damu.[190]
Hahanu Hahanu is an obscure god of uncertain function who is referenced in passing by several inscriptions.[191]
Hanbi Hanbi is the father of the demon-god Pazuzu.[192]
Hani Hani is a minor East Semitic deity.[193] He is the sukkal to the storm-god Adad.[193]
Haya Umma, Ur, and Kuara.[194] Haya is the husband of the goddess Nisaba.[99][194] Haya was primarily a god of scribes,[194] but he may have also been associated with grain and agriculture.[194] He also served as a doorkeeper.[194] In some texts, he is identified as the father of the goddess Ninlil.[194] He was worshipped mostly during the Third Dynasty of Ur, when he had temples in the cities of Umma, Ur, and Kuara.[194] In later times, he had a temple in the city of Assur and may have had one in Nineveh.[194] A god named Haya was worshipped at Mari, but this may have been a different deity.[194]
Hayasum Hayasum is a minor god who is referenced in some inscriptions, but whose function is unknown.[195]
Hegir-Nuna
Gangir
Hegir-Nuna, also known as Gangir, is one of the seven daughters of Baba.[196]
Hendursag Hendursag was a Sumerian god of law.[197] King Gudea of Lagash refers to him as the "herald of the land of Sumer" in one inscription.[191]
Ig-alima Lagash[198] Ig-alima is the son of Bau and Ninĝirsu.[198]
Ilaba Agade[56] Ilaba was briefly a major deity during the Akkadian Period,[56] but seems to have been completely obscure during all other periods of Mesopotamian history.[56] He was closely associated with the kings of the Akkadian Empire.[83]
Ilabrat Worshipped with Anu as his sukkal Ilabrat is the sukkal, or personal attendant, of the god Anu.[36][199] He appears in the myth of Adapa in which he tells Anu that the reason why the south wind does not blow is because Adapa, the priest of Ea in Eridu, has broken its wing.[199]
Imdugud
Relief of Imdugud as a monstrous bird
Imdugud, later known as Anzû, is an enormous bird-like monster with the head of a lion that was so huge that the flapping of its wings was thought to be the cause of sandstorms and whirlwinds.[200] Imdugud probably originated as the personification of atmospheric fog.[200] In some descriptions, he has a "beak like a saw", indicating that he sometimes had the head of a bird.[200] In Sumerian mythology, Imdugud steals the sacred mes (the clay tablets recording all the aspects of civilization) from Enki.[200] In Akkadian mythology, he steals the Tablet of Destinies from Enlil.[200] In both stories, Imdugud is challenged by Ninurta, who defeats him and returns the stolen property to its rightful owner.[200] In the Sumerian story of Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld, Imdugud is one of several creatures that come to inhabit the huluppu tree planted by Inanna[201][202][203] and is driven off by the hero Gilgamesh.[202][203]
Išḫara Middle Euphrates region[138] Išḫara is a mainly Semitic goddess who was primarily associated with love,[138] but who is also a goddess of war and extispacy, and sometimes a mother goddess.[138] She was equated with Ishtar from early on.[138] In early times, her sacred animal is the snake,[138] but, in later times, it is the scorpion.[138] She is identified with the constellation Scorpius.[138] An important goddess with the same name as her was also worshipped by the Hurrians in southeast Anatolia and northwest Syria as an Underworld goddess.[138]
Isimud
Isimud depicted on the Adda Seal
Worshipped with Enki as his sukkal Isimud, later known as Usmû, is the sukkal, or personal attendant, to the god Enki.[138] His name is related to the word meaning "having two faces"[138] and he is shown in art with a face on either side of his head.[138] He acts as Enki's messenger in the myths of Enki and Ninhursag and Inanna and Enki.[138]
Ishum Ishum was a popular, but not very important god,[111] who was worshipped from the Early Dynastic Period onwards.[111] In one text, he is described as the son of Shamash and Ninlil.[111] He was a generally benevolent deity, who served as a night watchman and protector.[111] He may be the same god as the Sumerian Hendursag, because the both of them are said to have been the husband of the goddess Ninmug.[111] He was sometimes associated with the Underworld[111] and was believed to exert a calming influence on Erra, the god of rage and violence.[111]
Kakka Kakka is a sukkal to both Anu and Anshar who plays a role in the text of Nergal and Ereshkigal.[204]
Kittu Kittu is the daughter of Utu and Sherida.[205] Her name means "Truth".[205]
Kus Kus is a god of herdsmen referenced in the Theogony of Dunnu.[206]
Lahar Lahar is a goddess of cattle.[165] In the Sumerian poem The Dispute between Cattle and Grain, she and her sister Ashnan are created by the Anunnaki to provide them with food.[166] They produce large amounts of food,[167] but become drunk with wine and start to quarrel, so Enki and Enlil intervene, declaring Ashnan the victor.[168]
Lahmu
Alabaster bas-relief depicting Lahmu, one of the Assyrian protective spirits from the South-West palace at Nineveh, modern-day Ninawa Governorate, Iraq. Neo-Assyrian period, 700-692 BC
Lahmu is a protective and beneficent god whose name means "Hairy".[207] He was originally associated with Enki and later with Marduk.[207] During the Neo-Assyrian Period (911 BC – 609 BC), figurines of Lahmu, who is depicted with long hair and a long, curled beard, were placed under the foundations of houses and temples to protect against demons and pestilence.[207] Lahmu is closely associated with the kusarikku or "bull-man".[207] In the Babylonian Enûma Eliš, Lahmu and his consort Lahamu are a primordial couple.[207] Their names are derived from the same root.[207]
Lamashtu
Bronze Neo-Assyrian protection plaque showing Lamashtu as a hideous demon
Lamashtu was a goddess with the "head of a lion, the teeth of a donkey, naked breasts, a hairy body, hands stained (with blood?), long fingers and fingernails, and the feet of Anzû."[208] She was believed to feed on the blood of human infants[208] and was widely blamed as the cause of miscarriages and cot deaths.[208] Although Lamashtu has traditionally been identified as a demoness,[209] the fact that she could cause evil on her own without the permission of other deities strongly indicates that she was seen as a goddess in her own right.[208] Mesopotamian peoples protected against her using amulets and talismans.[208] She was believed to ride in her boat on the river of the Underworld[208] and she was associated with donkeys.[208] She was believed to be the daughter of An.[208]
Lisin Adab and Kesh[164] Lisin and her brother Ashgi were worshipped in Adab and Kesh.[164] Her husband was the god Ninsikila.[164] In Sumerian times, Lisin was viewed as a mother goddess.[164] She is identified with the star α Scorpionis.[164] Later, Ninsikila was accidentally mistranslated as the name of a goddess and Lisin accordingly became treated as a god.[164]
Lugalbanda Uruk, Nippur, and Kuara[210] Lugalbanda was an early legendary king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, who was later declared to be a god.[210] He is the husband of the goddess Ninsun and the father of the mortal hero Gilgamesh.[210] He is mentioned as a god alongside Ninsun in a list of deities as early as the Early Dynastic Period.[210] A brief fragment of a myth about him from this same time period is also preserved.[210] During the Third Dynasty of Ur, all the kings would offer sacrifices to Lugalbanda as a god in the holy city of Nippur.[210] Two epic poems about Lugalbanda describe him successfully crossing dangerous mountains alone, though hindered by severe illness.[210] The Sumerian King List makes him a shepherd, who reigned for 1,200 years.[210] He has a close relationship with the goddess Inanna.[210]
Lugal-irra and Meslamta-ea
The constellation Gemini
Kisiga[210] Lugal-irra and Meslamta-ea are a set of twin gods who were worshipped in the village of Kisiga, located in northern Babylonia.[210] They were regarded as guardians of doorways[211] and they may have originally been envisioned as a set of twins guarding the gates of the Underworld, who chopped the dead into pieces as they passed through the gates.[212] During the Neo-Assyrian period, small depictions of them would be buried at entrances,[211] with Lugal-irra always on the left and Meslamta-ea always on the right.[211] They are identical and are shown wearing horned caps and each holding an axe and a mace.[211] They are identified with the constellation Gemini, which is named after them.[211]
Lulal Bad-tibira[208] Lulal is a god who is closely associated with Inanna,[208] but their relationship is unclear and ambiguous.[208] He appears in Inanna's Descent into the Underworld.[208] He seems to have primarily been a warrior-god,[208] but he was also associated with domesticated animals.[208]
Mami or Mama Mami or Mama is a mother goddess whose name means "mother".[76] She may be the same goddess as Ninhursag.[76]
Mandanu Mandanu is a god of divine judgement who was worshipped during the Neo-Babylonian Period.[213]
Martu Martu, later known as Amurru, is a god who destroys cities and "rages over the land like a storm".[214] He is the personification of the nomads who began to appear on the edges of the Mesopotamian world in the middle of the third millennium BC, initially from the west, but later from the east as well.[214] One myth describes how the daughter of the god Numušda insists on marrying Martu, despite his unattractive habits.[215] In Old Babylonian and Kassite art, Amurru is shown as a god dressed in long robes and carrying a scimitar or a shepherd's crook.[5]
Misharu Misharu is the son of Utu and Sherida.[205] His name means "Justice".[205]
Nanaya
Babylonian kudurru showing Nanaya
Uruk and Kish[116] Nanaya was originally a goddess of lust and sexuality who shared many of her aspects with Inanna.[116] During the Old Babylonian Period, she and Inanna, as well as her daughter Kanisura, were worshipped as a trinity of goddesses in Uruk and later in Kish.[116] In later times, Nanaya was completely assimilated into Inanna[116] and her name became merely one of Inanna's many cultic epithets.[116]
Neti Neti is the gatekeeper of the Underworld.[216] In the story of Inanna's Descent into the Underworld, he leads Inanna through the seven gates of the Underworld,[216][217] removing one of her garments at each gate so that when she comes before Ereshkigal she is naked and symbolically powerless.[216][217]
Ningikuga Ningikuga is a goddess of reeds and marshes.[218] Her name means "Lady of the Pure Reed".[218] She is the daughter of Anu and Nammu[218] and one of the many consorts of Enki.[218]
Nin-imma Nin-imma is the divine personification of female genitalia.[219][220] Her name literally means "lady female genitals".[220] She appears in one version of the myth of Enki and Ninsikila in which she is the daughter of Enki and Ninkurra.[220][221] Enki rapes her and causes her to give birth to Uttu, the goddess of weaving and vegetation.[220][221]
Nindara Nindara is a minor god who was sometimes considered the consort of the goddess Nanshe.[222]
Ningilin
An Indian grey mongoose, which is found in Mesopotamia
Ningilin is a deity who was associated with mongooses, which are common throughout southern Mesopotamia.[223] who was conflated at an early date with Ningirima, a god of magic invoked for protection against snakes.[223] She is probably a goddess, but might have sometimes been considered a god.[223] She was so closely associated with mongooses that the Akkadian word for "mongoose" was later written using the Sumerian symbol for her name.[223] According to a Babylonian popular saying, when a mouse fled from a mongoose into a serpent's hole, it announced, "I bring you greetings from the snake-charmer!"[223] A creature resembling a mongoose also appears in Old Babylonian glyptic art,[223] but its significance is not known.[223]
Ningirima Ningirama was a deity associated with magic who was invoked for protection against snakes.[223] He or she was conflated with Ningilin, the deity of mongooses, at an early date.[223]
Ninkasi Ninkasi is the ancient Sumerian tutelary goddess of beer.
Ninkurra Ninkurra is the daughter of Enki and Ninsar.[224] After having sex with her father Enki, Ninkurra gave birth to Uttu, the goddess of weaving and vegetation.[224]
Ninmena Ninmena is a Sumerian mother goddess whose name means "Lady of the Crown".[76][224] She may just be another name for Ninhursag.[76][224]
Ninmug Ninmug is the wife of the god Ishum or the god Hendursag, who may be the same deity.[111]
Ninnisig Ninnisig is the wife of Erragal.[185]
Ninsar Ninsar is the daughter of Enki and Ninhursag.[225] After having sex with her father Enki, Ninsar gave birth to Ninkurra.[224]
Ninsianna
Photograph of the planet Venus, as seen from earth with the naked eye
É-eš-bar-zi-da temple in Ur and other temples in Sippar, Larsa, and Uruk[226] Ninsianna is the Sumerian deity of the planet Venus.[226] She was originally a goddess, but was sometimes later viewed as a god.[226] She is described in one text as the "holy torch who fills the heavens"[226] and was frequently associated with haruspicy.[226] Her worship is first attested during the Third Dynasty of Ur and she continued to be venerated until the Seleucid Period (312 BC – 63 BC).[226] Especially in later texts, she is often subsumed as an aspect of Inanna-Ishtar.[226]
Ninsikila Ninsikila is the husband of the goddess Lisin.[164] Later, his name was mistranslated as the name of a goddess and he became regarded as female.[164]
Ninsun
Fragmentary Neo-Sumerian steatite relief showing Ninsun
Uruk[99] Ninsun is the divine consort of Lugalbanda, the deified king of Uruk, and the mother of the hero Gilgamesh.[155]
Nintu Nintu is a Sumerian mother goddess associated with childbirth.[227] Her name literally means "Lady of Birth".[76] She may just be an aspect of Ninhursag.[76]
Nirah
Nirah in the form of a snake on upper edge of a kudurru boundary stone
Der[139] Nirah is the sukkal, or personal attendant, of the god Ištaran.[139] He was identified with snakes[139] and may appear in the form of a snake on kudurrus.[139]
Numushda Kazallu[173] Numushda is a god who was associated with the city of Kazallu.[173] His worship is attested from the Early Dynastic Period,[173] but his cult seems to have ceased at the end of the Old Babylonian Period.[173] He was believed to be the son of the moon-god Nanna and may have been regarded as a storm deity.[173] In the myth of The Marriage of Martu, Numushda's unnamed daughter insists on marrying the nomadic desert god Martu, despite his unattractive lifestyle.[173]
Nungal Ekur temple in Nippur[173] Nungal, also known as Manungal, was the daughter of Ereshkigal.[173] Her husband was the god Birtum.[173] She later became seen as an aspect of Nintinugga.[173]
Nusku Harran[173] Nusku is the god of fire and light.[173] He was the son and minister of Enlil.[173] The god Gibil is sometimes described as his son.[173] Nusku's main symbol was a lit oil lamp.[173] He was a member of a group of deities that were worshipped in Harran during the Neo-Assyrian Period by the predominately Old Aramaic-speaking population there.[173]
Pabilshag
The constellation Sagittarius
Isin, Nippur, and Larag[19] Pabilshag is a god whose worship is attested from the Early Dynastic Period onwards.[19] He was believed to be the son of Enlil and the husband of Ninisina, the patron goddess of Isin.[19] In some texts, he is identified with Ninurta or Ningirsu.[19] One Sumerian poem describes Pabilshag's journey to Nippur.[19] Pabilshag was believed to be the constellation Sagittarius.[19]
Pazuzu
Statuette of Pazuzu
Pazuzu is a demonic god who was well known to the Babylonians and Assyrians throughout the first millennium BC.[19] He is shown with "a rather canine face with abnormally bulging eyes, a scaly body, a snake-headed penis, the talons of a bird and usually wings."[19] He was believed to be the son of the god Hanbi.[192] He was a beneficent entity who protected against winds bearing pestilence[19] and he was thought to be able to force Lamashtu back to the Underworld.[228] Amulets bearing his image were positioned in dwellings to protect infants from Lamashtu[192] and pregnant women frequently wore amulets with his head on them as protection from her.[192] Ironically, Pazuzu appears in The Exorcist films as the demon that possesses the little girl.[192]
Šarrat-Dēri Der[139] Šarrat-Dēri is the wife of Ištaran, the local god of the Sumerian city-state of Der.[139] Her name means "Queen of Der".[139]
Shara E-mah temple in Umma and possibly also Tell Agrab[229] Shara was a local deity associated with the city of Umma, where his main temple was the E-mah.[229] A fragment of a stone bowl inscribed with his name discovered in the rubbish dump at Tell Agrab, northeast of Babylon, indicates that he may have also been worshipped there.[229] He was also a warrior god and is referred to as a "hero of An".[229] In the Babylonian myth of Anzû, Shara is one of the warrior gods who is asked to retrieve the Tablet of Destinies, but refuses.[229] In Inanna's Descent into the Underworld, Shara is one of the three deities who come to greet her upon her return.[229] In the myth of Lugalbanda and in a single building inscription from the Third Dynasty of Ur, Shara is described as Inanna's "son",[229] a tradition which runs directly contrary to the usual portrayal of Inanna as youthful and without offspring.[81]
Sherida Sippar and Larsa[229][230] Sherida, later known as Aya, was the goddess of light and the wife of the sun-god Utu.[229][205] She was closely associated with sexuality and fertility.[229][205] She was especially popular during the Old Babylonian Period and the Neo-Babylonian Period (626 BC – 539 BC).[229]
Shullat Shullat was an attendant of the sun god Shamash. His function as an attendant was in the capacity of personal security of the greater god Adad, as described and shown tablet 11 lines 98-100 of the Epic of Gilgamesh (together with Ḫanish fulfilling a dual function in that capacity).[231]
Shul-pa-e Shul-pa-e's name means "youthful brilliance",[229] but he was not envisioned as youthful god.[229] According to one tradition, he was the consort of Ninhursag, a tradition which contradicts the usual portrayal of Enki as Ninhursag's consort.[229][232] In one Sumerian poem, offerings are made to Shul-pa-e in the Underworld[229] and, in later mythology, he was one of the demons of the Underworld.[229]
Shul-utula Shul-utula was a tutelary deity known only as the personal deity to Entemena, king of the city of Eninnu.[233]
Sirtur Sirtur was a goddess of sheep known from inscriptions and passing comments in texts. She eventually became syncretised with the goddess, Ninsun.[234] In some texts, she is described as the mother of Dumuzid.[235]
Šul-šagana Lagash[198] Šul-šagana is the son of Bau and Ninĝirsu.[198]
Siduri Siduri is a wise goddess who was believed to keep an alehouse at the edge of the world.[232] In the earlier Old Babylonian versions of the Epic of Gilgamesh, she attempts to dissuade Gilgamesh from his quest for immortality,[236] instead urging him to be content with the simple pleasures in life.[236] Her name means "She is my Rampart".[232]
Silili Silili is an obscure goddess who was apparently the mother of all horses.[232] She is only attested once in the Epic of Gilgamesh.[232]
Sumugan Sumugan is an obscure "god of the plain", who is briefly referenced in the Sumerian poem The Dispute between Cattle and Grain.[165]
Tashmetu Kalhu[237] In Assyrian mythology, Tashmetu is the divine consort of Nabu, the god of scribes and wisdom;[237] in Babylonian mythology, this role is instead assigned to the goddess Nanaya.[237] Tashmetu is associated with wisdom and sexual attractiveness, a quality which she shares with Inanna and Nanaya.[237] A poetic composition from the Library of Ashurbanipal describes how, in one ritual, Nabu and Tashmetu's statues would be brought together for a "marriage ceremony".[237] One extant letter describes how, after their wedding, Tashmetu and Nabu stayed in the bedchamber for six days and seven nights, during which time they were served an elaborate feast.[237] Tashmetu is attested relatively late[237] and is not mentioned in texts prior to the Old Babylonian Period.[237]
Uraš Uraš is the earliest attested consort of Anu;[30][36] she is described in Sumerian texts dating to the third millennium BC.[30][36] Her role as Anu's consort was later ascribed to Ki, the personification of the earth.[30][36]
Uttu
A spider in its web
Uttu is the Sumerian goddess of weaving.[62] The same cuneiform symbol used to write her name was also used to write the Sumerian word for "spider",[62] indicating that Uttu was probably envisioned as a spider spinning a web.[62] She appears primarily in the myth of Enki and Ninsikila, in which she resists the sexual advances of her father Enki by ensconcing herself inside her web,[238] but he convinces her to let him in using a gift of fresh produce and the promise that he will marry her.[238] Enki then intoxicates her with beer and rapes her.[238] She is rescued by Enki's wife Ninhursag,[238] who removes Enki's semen from her vagina and plants it in the ground, resulting in the growth of eight new plants, which Enki later eats.[238]
Zababa E-mete-ursag temple in Kish[239] Zababa is a local god associated with the city of Kish, near Babylon.[239] According to the local tradition, he was the husband of the warrior-goddess Inanna, who was a very important deity in that city.[239] The earliest attestation of Zababa comes from the Early Dynastic Period.[239] Zababa was a god of war and he was syncretized with the god Ninurta, who was also known as Ningirsu.[239] In one list of deities he is called "Marduk of battle".[239] His primary symbol was a staff with the head of an eagle.[239]

Foreign deities in Mesopotamia

Name Image Place of origin Details
Astarte
Statuette of Astarte
Levant[240] Astarte is a West Semitic goddess of warfare,[240] whose name is cognate to the one belonging to the East Semitic goddess Ishtar.[240] She and Ishtar had many qualities in common,[240] but Astarte was more closely associated with warfare, while Ishtar was more closely associated with love and sexuality.[240] The two goddesses were eventually syncretized.[240]
Atargatis
Nabatean relief of Atargatis (c. 100 AD)
Syria[241] Atargatis is a Syrian goddess who was worshipped in the early centuries AD.[241] Her main cult center was her temple in the city of Hierapolis,[241] which a Jewish rabbi later listed as one of the five most important pagan temples in the Near East.[242] Her cult was apparently highly influential during the Roman Period,[243] but the only source describing the rituals associated with her in detail is the satirical essay On the Syrian Goddess, written in the second century AD by the Hellenized Syrian Lucian.[243] Lucian's treatise is primarily a work of satire making fun of the arbitrary cultural distinctions between "Greeks" and "Assyrians" by emphasizing the manner in which Syrians have adopted Greek customs and thereby effectively become "Greeks" themselves.[244] Scholars therefore dispute whether the treatise is an accurate description of Syrian cultural practices[241] and very little is known about Hierapolis other than what is recorded in On the Syrian Goddess itself.[241]
Aglibol
Statue of Aglibol
Palmyra, Syria[245] Aglibol is the Palmyrene god of the moon.[245] He was worshipped alongside Malakbel, the god of the sun.[245]
Baalshamin
Statue of Baalshamin
Syria[246] Baalshamin is an originally Canaanite deity whose cult spread throughout much of Syria.[246] He is the god of fertile soil and clear skies.[246] His name means "Lord of Heaven" and the heavens were thought to belong to him.[246] He was a supreme god of weather and rain.[246]
Bel of Palmyra
Relief carving of the Palmyrene Bel
Palmyra, Syria[247] A god under the title "Bel", distinct from the Babylonian god with the same title, was worshipped as the chief god of the Palmyrene pantheon in Syria during the late first millennium BC.[248] He is first attested under the name Bol,[249] but, after the Babylonian cult of Marduk-Bel was introduced to Palmyra in around 213 BC, he was renamed as "Bel".[249]
Bes
Egyptian amulet of Bes
Egypt[250] Bes is an Egyptian god of play and recreation.[251] He was envisioned as a "full-faced, bow-legged dwarf with an oversized head, goggle eyes, protruding tongue, bushy tail and usually a large feathered crown as a head-dress."[251] Representations of an almost identical dwarf-god became widespread across the Near East during the first millennium BC and are common in Syria, Palestine, and Arabia.[252] This god's name in Assyrian and Babylonian may have been Pessû.[252] Bes seems to have been the only Egyptian god who became widely worshipped throughout Mesopotamia.[253]
Humban Elam[253] Hamban, later known as Napirisha, is the Elamite god of the sky.[253] His name means "Great God".[253]
Hutran Elam[253] Hutran is an Elamite god who was believed to be the son of Kiririsha and Napirisha.[253]
Inshushinak
Relief possibly depicting Inshushinak
Elam[253] Inshushinak is an Elamite god was originally the patron god of the city of Susa,[253] but later became a major underworld deity.[253]
Inzak Dilmun[254] The Sumerians regarded Inzak as the chief god of the Dilmunite pantheon,[254] but the Dilmunites themselves regarded him as a god of Agaru, a land in eastern Arabia.[254] His main cult center was on Failaka Island,[254] where a temple was dedicated to him.[254] During the Neo-Babylonian Period, Inzak was identified with Nabu.[254]
Lagamal and Ishmekerab Elam[253] Lagamal and Ishmekerab are twin Elamite goddesses who were believed to serve as judges of the dead in the Underworld.[253]
Malakbel
Relief of Malakbel from an altar
Palmyra, Syria[245] Malakbel is the Palmyrene god of the sun.[245] He was worshipped alongside Aglibol, the god of the moon.[245]
Meskilak Dilmun[254] Meskilak is the patron goddess of the city of Dilmun.[254] She may have been seen as the wife or mother of Inzak.[254] The Sumerians seem to have identified her with Ninhursag.[254] She is sometimes referred to as Nin-Dilmun, meaning "Lady of Dilmun".[254]
Muati Dilmun[255] Muati is an obscure Dilmunite god who is referenced in some Sumerian texts.[255] He was later syncretized with Nabu.[255]
Nahhunte Elam[253] Nahhunte is the Elamite god of the sun and justice.[253]
Napir Elam[50] Napir is the Elamite god of the moon.[50]
Pienenkir Elam[253] Pienenkir, later known as Kiririsha, is a mother goddess, who was worshipped by the Elamites.[253] Her name means "Great Goddess".[253]
Lahamun Dilmun[254] Lahamun is a Dilmunite goddess who is described in Mesopotamian texts as the "Ṣarpānītu of Dilmun".[254]
Manzât Elam[50] Manzât is the wife of the Elamite god Simut.[50]
Ruhurater, Kilahšupir, and Tirutir Elam[50] Ruhurater, Kilahšupir, and Tirutir are a group of local, Elamite deities.[50]
Siyâšum, Narunte, and Niarzina Elam[50] Siyâšum, Narunte, and Niarzina are the three sisters of the Elamite goddess Kiririsha.[50]
Simut Elam[50] Simut is an Elamite god who serves as a herald.[50]
Yahweh
El, Elohim, El Shaddai, Yah
Yehud coin possibly depicting Yahweh, the national god of the Israelites
Kingdoms of Israel and Judah[256][257][258] Yahweh was the national god of the Israelites, who originally lived in the Levantine kingdoms of Israel and Judah.[256][257][258] In 586 BC, the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, destroyed the Temple of Solomon, and deported the elite members of Judahite society to Babylon in an event known as the "Babylonian exile".[259] Modern scholars generally agree that much of the Deuteronomistic History was probably edited and redacted by Judahite priests living in Babylon during the exile.[260] The works of Second Isaiah, also written in Babylon, represent the first unambiguous Judahite declaration of the non-existence of foreign deities and proclamation of Yahweh as the sole, supreme God.[261] Much of the Torah was probably written and compiled after the exile, when the Jews were allowed to return to their homeland by the Persians.[262][263]
Yarhibol Palmyra, Syria[264] Yarhibol was originally the Palmyrene god of justice and morality,[264] but he eventually became regarded as the god of the sun as well, due to syncretism with the Babylonian sun-god Shamash.[265]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The metals are listed as done by the Arab geographer al-Dimašqī (†1327), who described the temples of the Sabians of Harran (a group who preserved Mesopotamian religion), and by the 10th-century scholar al-Nihāwandī.[61] The colors are listed according to the general reconstruction provided by Peter James and Marius Anthony Van der Sluijs, based on Herodotus's description of the walls of Ecbatana, the descriptions of other Mesopotamian temples, and the earlier studies of Henry Rawlinson. Mesopotamian temples' levels were each of a different color, corresponding to the hierarchy of the planetary gods.[59]
  2. ^ The authors cite Henry Rawlinson (1841) in Memoir on the Site of the Atropatenian Ecbatana, where he says that the color associated with the moon was green, "a hue which is applied by the orientals to silver".[70]
  3. ^ Herodotus, in his description of the walls of Ecbatana, uses the Greek term phoiníkeos, which may mean "purple-red", "crimson", "dark red" or simply "red". Modern translators appropriately use "scarlet".[75]
  4. ^ Herodotus uses the Greek term sandarákinos, which defined "an orange pigment" made from realgar, thus rendered as "orange" (or "vermilion", an orange-red) by modern translators.[77]

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