역사적으로 흑인 대학 목록 - List of historically black colleges and universities

역사적으로 흑인 대학 (HBCU) 목록에는 흑인 커뮤니티에 봉사 할 목적으로 1964 년 이전에 설립 된 미국고등 교육 기관이 나열되어 있습니다. [1] [2]

앨라배마는 HBCUS 수로 미국을 선도하고 있으며 노스 캐롤라이나, 조지아 순입니다.

현재 기관

학교 시티 주 / 영토 설립 유형 종교적 소속 논평 지역 공인 [3]
앨라배마 A & M 대학교 표준 앨라배마 1875 년 공공의 " Huntsville의 Colored Normal School "로 설립
앨라배마 주립 대학 몽고메리 앨라배마 1867 년 공공의 "링컨 마리온 사범 학교"로 설립
알바니 주립 대학 Albany 그루지야 1903 년 공공의 "알바니 성경 및 매뉴얼 교육 기관"으로 설립
알콘 주립 대학 Lorman 미시시피 1871 년 공공의 James L. Alcorn 을 기리기 위해 "Alcorn University"로 설립
앨런 대학교 콜롬비아 사우스 캐롤라이나 1870 년 은밀한 아프리카 감리교 성공회 "Payne Institute"로 설립
미국 침례교 대학 내슈빌 테네시 1924 년 은밀한 세례 요한 미국 교육부가 2013 년 3 월 20 일에 역사적으로 흑인 대학 또는 대학으로 연방 지정을 수여했습니다. [4]
파인 블러 프에있는 아칸소 대학교 Pine Bluff Arkansas 1873 년 공공의 "사범 대학"설립
Arkansas Baptist College 작은 바위 Arkansas 1884 년 은밀한 세례 요한 "장관 연수회"로 설립 [5]
이발사-스코샤 대학 일치 노스 캐롤라이나 1867 년 은밀한 장로교 Scotia Seminary와 Barber Memorial College의 두 기관으로 설립 아니
베네딕트 칼리지 콜롬비아 사우스 캐롤라이나 1870 년 은밀한 미국 침례 교회 미국 "베네딕트 연구소"로 설립
베넷 칼리지 Greensboro 노스 캐롤라이나 1873 년 은밀한 연합 감리 교회 "Bennett Seminary"로 설립
베툰-쿡맨 대학교 데이토나 비치 플로리다 1904 년 은밀한 연합 감리 교회 "흑인 소녀를위한 데이토나 교육 및 산업 훈련 학교"로 설립
비숍 스테이트 커뮤니티 칼리지 변하기 쉬운 앨라배마 1927 년 공공의 원래 Alabama State College의 한 지점
블루 필드 주립 대학 Bluefield 웨스트 버지니아 1895 년 공공의 "Bluefield Coloured Institute"로 설립
보위 주립 대학 보위 메릴랜드 1865 년 공공의 "볼티모어 사범 학교"로 설립
센트럴 스테이트 대학교 Wilberforce 오하이오 1887 년 공공의 아프리카 감리교 성공회 원래 Wilberforce University의 한 부서 [6]
펜실베니아 체이니 대학교 Cheyney 펜실베니아 1837 년 공공의 가장 오래된 HBCU. Quaker 자선가 Richard Humphreys 가 "유색 청소년을위한 연구소"로 설립
클라 플린 대학교 Orangeburg 사우스 캐롤라이나 1869 년 은밀한 연합 감리 교회
클락 애틀랜타 대학교 애틀랜타 그루지야 1865 년 은밀한 연합 감리 교회 원래 두 기관, Clark College와 Atlanta University
클린턴 칼리지 Rock Hill 사우스 캐롤라이나 1894 년 은밀한 아프리카 감리교 성공회 시온 교회 "Clinton Institute"로 설립 [7]
Coahoma 커뮤니티 칼리지 Coahoma 카운티 미시시피 1924 년 공공의 "Coahoma 카운티 농업 고등학교"로 설립
코핀 주립 대학 볼티모어 메릴랜드 1900 년 공공의 "컬러 드 고등학교"로 설립
델라웨어 주립 대학 도버 델라웨어 1891 년 공공의 "유색 학생을위한 델라웨어 대학"으로 설립
덴마크 기술 대학 덴마크 사우스 캐롤라이나 1947 년 공공의 "덴마크 지역 무역 학교"로 설립 [8]
딜라 드 대학교 뉴 올리언스 루이지애나 1869 년 은밀한 연합 감리 교회와 연합 감리 교회 이전 기관 설립 : " Straight University "및 "New Orleans University"
컬럼비아 특별구 대학교 워싱턴 컬럼비아 특별구 1851 년 공공의 "광부 사범 학교"로 설립
에드워드 워터스 칼리지 Jacksonville 플로리다 1866 년 은밀한 아프리카 감리교 성공회 "브라운 신학 연구소"로 설립
엘리자베스 시티 주립 대학 Elizabeth City 노스 캐롤라이나 1891 년 공공의
페이 엇빌 주립 대학교 Fayetteville 노스 캐롤라이나 1867 년 공공의 "하워드 학교"로 설립
피스크 대학교 내슈빌 테네시 1866 년 은밀한 그리스도 연합 교회 [9] 클린턴 보웬 피스크의 이름
플로리다 A & M 대학교 탤러 해시 플로리다 1887 년 공공의 "유색 학생을위한 주립 사범 대학"으로 설립
플로리다 메모리얼 대학교 마이애미 정원 플로리다 1879 년 은밀한 미국 침례 교회 미국 "Live Oak의 플로리다 침례교 연구소"로 설립
포트 밸리 주립 대학 포트 밸리 그루지야 1895 년 공공의 "Fort Valley High and Industrial School"로 설립
개 즈던 주립 커뮤니티 칼리지 Gadsden 앨라배마 1925 년 공공의 "Alabama School of Trades"로 설립
Grambling State University Grambling 루이지애나 1901 년 공공의 "색칠 공업 농업 학교"로 설립
햄튼 대학교 햄튼 여자 이름 1868 년 은밀한 "햄튼 사범 및 농업 연구소"로 설립
해리스-스토우 주립 대학 세인트루이스 미주리 1857 년 공공의 1857 년 백인을위한 "St. Louis Normal School"으로 설립되었으며, Stowe Teachers College는 1890 년 흑인을 위해 시작되었습니다. 1954 년에 합병 [10]
Utica의 Hinds Community College 유 티카 미시시피 1903 년 공공의 "Utica Junior College"로 설립
하워드 대학교 워싱턴 컬럼비아 특별구 1867 년 은밀한 "교사 및 설교자 교육을위한 Howard Normal and Theological School"로 설립
휴스턴-틸 롯슨 대학교 오스틴 텍사스 1875 년 은밀한 연합 감리 교회 / United Church of Christ "Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute"로 설립
초교파 신학 센터 애틀랜타 그루지야 1958 년 은밀한 초교파
JF 드레이크 주립 기술 대학 Huntsville 앨라배마 1961 년 공공의 "Huntsville State Vocational Technical School"로 설립
잭슨 주립 대학 잭슨 미시시피 1877 년 공공의 American Baptist Home Mission Society 에서 "Natchez Seminary"로 설립 , 1942 년 공개
자비스 기독교 대학 호킨스 텍사스 1912 년 은밀한 제자
존슨 C. 스미스 대학교 샬럿 노스 캐롤라이나 1867 년 은밀한 장로 교회 (미국) "비들 기념 연구소"로 설립
켄터키 주립 대학 Frankfort 켄터키 1886 년 공공의 "유색인을위한 주립 사범 학교"로 설립
녹스빌 칼리지 녹스빌 (Mechanicsville) 테네시 1875 년 은밀한 북미 연합 장로 교회 아니
레인 칼리지 잭슨 테네시 1882 년 은밀한 기독교 감리교 성공회 "색채 감리교 성공회"로 설립 [11]
랭 스턴 대학교 Langston 오클라호마 1897 년 공공의 "오클라호마 유색 농업 및 사범 대학"으로 설립
로슨 주립 커뮤니티 칼리지 베 세머 앨라배마 1949 년 공공의
르 모인-오웬 칼리지 멤피스 테네시 1862 년 은밀한 그리스도 연합 교회 "LeMoyne Normal and Commercial School"로 설립 [12] (초등학교에서 1870 년까지)
링컨 대학교 체스터 카운티 펜실베니아 1854 년 공공의 "Ashmun Institute"로 설립
미주리 링컨 대학교 Jefferson City 미주리 1866 년 공공의 "Lincoln Institute"로 설립 [13]
리빙스톤 칼리지 솔즈베리 노스 캐롤라이나 1879 년 은밀한 아프리카 감리교 성공회 시온 교회 "Zion Wesley Institute"로 설립
메릴랜드 이스턴 쇼어 대학교 앤 공주 메릴랜드 1886 년 공공의 원래 : Methodist Episcopal "Delaware Conference Academy"로 설립
메 해리 의과 대학 내슈빌 테네시 1876 ​​년 은밀한 연합 감리 교회 Central Tennessee College 의 의학부로 설립
마일즈 칼리지 Fairfield 앨라배마 1898 년 은밀한 CME 교회 1941 년까지 "Miles Memorial College"로 알려짐; William H. Miles 감독의 이름을 딴
미시시피 밸리 주립 대학 이타 베나 미시시피 1950 년 공공의 "미시 씨피 전문 학교"로 설립
모어 하우스 칼리지 애틀랜타 그루지야 1867 년 은밀한 원래 : American Baptist Home Mission Society "Augusta Institute"로 설립
모어 하우스 의과 대학 애틀랜타 그루지야 1975 년 은밀한 Morehouse College의 일부로 설립
모건 주립 대학 볼티모어 메릴랜드 1867 년 공공의 원래 : Methodist Episcopal "Centenary Biblical Institute"로 설립
모리스 브라운 칼리지 애틀랜타 그루지야 1881 년 은밀한 아프리카 감리교 성공회 아프리카 감리교 성공회에서 두 번째 주교의 이름을 따서 명명 아니
모리스 칼리지 Sumter 사우스 캐롤라이나 1908 년 은밀한 침례교 교육 및 선교 대회
노퍽 주립 대학 노퍽 Virginia 1935 Public Founded as "Norfolk Unit of Virginia State University"[14] Yes
North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University Greensboro North Carolina 1891 Public Founded as "The Agricultural & Mechanical College for the Colored Race" Yes
North Carolina Central University Durham North Carolina 1910 Public Founded as "National Religious Training School and Chautauqua" Yes
Oakwood University Huntsville Alabama 1896 Private Seventh-day Adventist Church Founded as "Oakwood Industrial School" Yes
Paine College Augusta Georgia 1882 Private United Methodist Church and Christian Methodist Episcopal Church Founded as "Paine Institute" Yes
Paul Quinn College Dallas Texas 1872 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church Named for William Paul Quinn Yes
Payne Theological Seminary Wilberforce Ohio 1856 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church Named for Bishop Daniel Payne. Founded as a seminary with Wilberforce University in 1856. Later became Payne Theological Seminary in 1894 Yes
Philander Smith College Little Rock Arkansas 1877 Private United Methodist Church Founded as "Walden Seminary" Yes
Prairie View A&M University Prairie View Texas 1876 Public Founded as "Alta Vista Agriculture & Mechanical College for Colored Youth"[15] Yes
Rust College Holly Springs Mississippi 1866 Private United Methodist Church Known as "Shaw University" until 1882 Yes
Savannah State University Savannah Georgia 1890 Public Founded as "Georgia State Industrial College for Colored Youth" Yes
Selma University Selma Alabama 1878 Private Alabama State Missionary Baptist Convention Founded as "Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School" Yes
Shaw University Raleigh North Carolina 1865 Private National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. Yes
Shorter College North Little Rock Arkansas 1886 Private African Methodist Episcopal Two-year college; founded as "Bethel University" Yes [16]
Shelton State Community College Tuscaloosa Alabama 1952 Public Founded as "J.P. Shelton Trade School" Yes
Simmons College Louisville Kentucky 1869 Private Founded as Kentucky Normal Technological Institute Yes
South Carolina State University Orangeburg South Carolina 1896 Public Founded as "Colored, Normal, Industrial, Agricultural, and Mechanical College of South Carolina" Yes
Southern University at New Orleans New Orleans Louisiana 1959 Public Founded as a branch unit of Southern University in Baton Rouge Yes
Southern University at Shreveport Shreveport Louisiana 1967 Public Part of the Southern University System Yes
Southern University and A&M College Baton Rouge Louisiana 1880 Public Conceptualized by P. B. S. Pinchback, T. T. Allain, and Henry Demas Yes
Southwestern Christian College Terrell Texas 1948 Private Church of Christ Founded as "Southern Bible Institute"[17] Yes
Spelman College Atlanta Georgia 1881 Private Originally, American Baptist Home Mission Society Founded as "Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary" Yes
St. Augustine's University Raleigh North Carolina 1867 Private Episcopal Church (United States) Yes
St. Philip's College San Antonio Texas 1898 Public Episcopal Church Founded as "St. Philip's Sewing Class for Girls"[18] Yes
Stillman College Tuscaloosa Alabama 1876 Private Presbyterian Founded as Tuscaloosa Institute, the College was a concept of Reverend Dr. Charles Allen Stillman, pastor of First Presbyterian Church of Tuscaloosa[19] Yes
Talladega College Talladega County Alabama 1867 Private United Church of Christ Known as "Swayne School" until 1869 Yes
Tennessee State University Nashville Tennessee 1912 Public Founded as "Agricultural and Industrial State Normal School" Yes
Texas College Tyler Texas 1894 Private Christian Methodist Episcopal Church Yes
Texas Southern University Houston Texas 1927 Public Founded as "Texas State University for Negroes" Yes
Tougaloo College Hinds County Mississippi 1869 Private American Missionary Association Founded as "Tougaloo University" Yes
Trenholm State Technical College Montgomery Alabama 1947 Public Founded as "John M. Patterson Technical School"[21] Yes
Tuskegee University Tuskegee Alabama 1881 Private Founded as Tuskegee Institute, Now a National Historic Site Yes
University of the Virgin Islands St. Croix & St. Thomas United States Virgin Islands 1962 Public Founded as "College of the Virgin Islands" Yes
Virginia State University Petersburg Virginia 1882 Public Founded as "Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute at Petersburg" Yes
Virginia Union University Richmond Virginia 1865 Private American Baptist Churches USA Founded as "Wayland Seminary," and merged with Richmond Institute (1865) in 1889[22] Yes
Virginia University of Lynchburg Lynchburg Virginia 1886 Private Baptist Founded as "Lynchburg Baptist Seminary" Yes
Voorhees College Denmark South Carolina 1897 Private Episcopal Church Founded as "Denmark Industrial School" Yes
West Virginia State University Institute West Virginia 1891 Public Founded as "West Virginia Colored Institute" Yes
Wilberforce University Wilberforce Ohio 1856 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church Named for William Wilberforce Yes
Wiley College Marshall Texas 1873 Private United Methodist Church Named for Isaac William Wiley Yes
Winston-Salem State University Winston-Salem North Carolina 1892 Public Founded as "Slater Industrial and State Normal School" Yes
Xavier University of Louisiana New Orleans Louisiana 1915 Private Roman Catholic Founding predecessor institutions: "St. Katharine Drexel" and the "Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament" Yes

Defunct institutions

School City State Founded Closed Type Religious Affiliation Comment
Avery College Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 1849 1873 Private A.M.E. Zion Church Though the records are scant, it appears that Avery College suspended operations in 1873, the year of a great nationwide financial panic. Trustees considered selling the school property to the marker University of Western Pennsylvania (University of Pittsburgh), which had reluctantly accepted Avery's donation to assist in educating a handful of African-American students. Nothing came of the negotiations, however, and Avery College never reopened. As late as 1908, the trustees were debating whether to establish a manual training school or a hospital and nursing school facility on the property. Years later the original three-story building was demolished to make way for a new highway project.
Bishop College Dallas Texas 1881 1988 Private Home Mission Society Founded in Marshall, Texas; later moved to Dallas.
Booker T. Washington Junior College Pensacola Florida 1949 1965 Public The first of twelve black junior colleges created in Florida, it closed after passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Nominally merged with Pensacola Junior College.
J. P. Campbell College Started in Vicksburg, moved to Jackson in 1898 Mississippi 1890 1964 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church Located across the street from Jackson College, now Jackson State University, J. P. Campbell College famously admitted students expelled from high school for participating in the Civil Rights Movement. Then, amidst a failed plan to relocate to Mound Bayou, Mississippi, a black town, it collapsed financially.[23]
Carver Junior College Cocoa Florida 1960 1963 Public One of eleven black junior colleges founded in Florida after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, in an attempt to show that separate but equal higher education facilities existed in Florida. All were abruptly closed after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Collier-Blocker Junior College Palatka Florida 1960 1964 Public One of eleven black junior colleges founded in Florida after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, in an attempt to show that separate but equal higher education facilities existed in Florida. All were abruptly closed after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Concordia College, Alabama Selma Alabama 1922 2018 Private Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod Known as "Alabama Lutheran Academy and Junior College" until 1981; It was the only historically black college among the ten colleges and universities in the Concordia University System. The college ceased operations at the completion of the Spring 2018 semester, citing years of financial distress and declining enrollment.
Daniel Payne College Birmingham Alabama 1889 1979 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church
Friendship College Rock Hill South Carolina 1891 1981 Private Baptist
George R. Smith College Sedalia Missouri 1894 1925 It burned down April 26, 1925, after which its assets were merged (in 1933) with the Philander Smith College
Gibbs Junior College St. Petersburg Florida 1957 1966 Public Regionally accredited. Founded to show that separate but equal educational institutions for African Americans were viable, and that racial integration, mandated by Brown v. Board of Education, was unnecessary. Closed shortly after passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; nominally merged with St. Petersburg Junior College (today St. Petersburg College).
Guadalupe College Seguin Texas 1884 1936 Private Texas Missionary Baptist General Convention Ceased operations after a fire destroyed the main building in 1936.[24]
Hampton Junior College Ocala Florida 1958 1966 Public One of eleven black junior colleges founded in Florida after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, in an attempt to show that separate but equal higher education facilities existed in Florida. All were abruptly closed after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Jackson Junior College Marianna Florida 1961 1966 Public One of eleven black junior colleges founded in Florida after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, in an attempt to show that separate but equal higher education facilities existed in Florida. All were abruptly closed after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Johnson Junior College Leesburg Florida 1960 1966 Public One of eleven black junior colleges founded in Florida after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, in an attempt to show that separate but equal higher education facilities existed in Florida. All were abruptly closed after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Kittrell College Kittrell North Carolina 1886 1975 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church
Leland University New Orleans Louisiana 1870 1960 Private Home Mission Society Founded as a grade school in New Orleans, Leland was a Baker, Louisiana-based Baptist University when it closed.
Lewis College of Business Detroit Michigan 1928 2013[25] Private Founded as "Lewis Business College"
Lincoln Junior College Fort Pierce Florida 1960 1966 Public One of eleven black junior colleges founded in Florida after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, in an attempt to show that separate but equal higher education facilities existed in Florida. All were abruptly closed after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Mary Holmes College West Point Mississippi 1892 2005 Private Presbyterian
Mississippi Industrial College Holly Springs Mississippi 1905 1982 Private Colored Methodist Episcopal Church; later called the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church.
Morristown College Morristown Tennessee 1881 1994 Private Methodist Episcopal Founded as a seminary and normal school in the late 1870s, became Knoxville College's satellite campus in 1989, and closed for good in 1994.
Mount Hermon Female Seminary Clinton Mississippi 1875 1924 Private American Missionary Association
Natchez College Natchez Mississippi 1885 1993 Private Baptist
Payne College Cuthbert Georgia 1879 1912 On June 5, 1912, it became part of Morris Brown University[26]
Roger Williams University Nashville Tennessee 1864 1929 Private American Baptist Home Mission Society Two suspicious fires destroyed its main building in 1905. Financial problems ledto its closure in 1929; combined with other institutions to form LeMoyne–Owen College.
Roosevelt Junior College West Palm Beach Florida 1958 1965 Public Regionally accredited. One of eleven black junior colleges founded in Florida after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, in an attempt to show that separate but equal higher education facilities existed in Florida. All were abruptly closed after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Rosenwald Junior College Panama City Florida 1958 1966 Public One of eleven black junior colleges founded in Florida after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, in an attempt to show that separate but equal higher education facilities existed in Florida. All were abruptly closed after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Saint Paul's College Lawrenceville Virginia 1888 2013 Private Protestant Episcopal Church Founded as "Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School". Closed June 2013.
Saints College Lexington Mississippi 2006 Private Church of God in Christ Originated as Saints Junior College and Academy
Southern Christian Institute Edwards Mississippi 1908? 1954 Private Protestant Merged into Tougaloo College. For a time thereafter its campus, renamed Mt. Beulah, was used by the Delta Ministry, CDGM, and other civil rights organizations.
Storer College Harpers Ferry West Virginia 1865 1955 Private Founded by Freewill Baptist Missionary Society Its endowment was transferred to Virginia Union, where its alumni have been recognized, and its physical assets were given to Alderson-Broaddus College to create scholarships for black students.[22] Its former campus is now part of the Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.[27]
Suwannee River Junior College Madison Florida 1959 1966 Public One of eleven black junior colleges founded in Florida after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, in an attempt to show that separate but equal higher education facilities existed in Florida. All were abruptly closed after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Volusia County Junior College Daytona Beach Florida 1958 1965 Public One of eleven black junior colleges founded in Florida after the Brown vs. Board of Education decision, in an attempt to show that separate but equal higher education facilities existed in Florida. All were abruptly closed after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Western University (Kansas) Quindaro Kansas 1865 1943 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church

References

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  2. ^ "Presidential Commission on Historically Black Colleges". Archived from the original on 2007-12-23.
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  4. ^ Roach, Ronald (24 April 2013). "American Baptist College Designated as a Historically Black Institution". Diverse: Issues In Higher Education. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  5. ^ "Home Page - Arkansas Baptist College". Arkansasbaptist.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  6. ^ Central State University History Archived 2008-05-26 at the Wayback Machine
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  9. ^ "History of Fisk". Archived from the original on 2007-10-28. Retrieved 2008-03-01.
  10. ^ "Harris-Stowe State University (314) 340-3366". Hssu.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
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  12. ^ LeMoyne-Owen College History Website Archived 2009-06-23 at the Wayback Machine
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  19. ^ "Stillman History". Stillman.edu. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  20. ^ Trinity Washington University WebPages 2014 I
  21. ^ Trenholm State Technical College Website Archived 2008-12-16 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ a b Hylton, Raymond. "University History". About Virginia Union. Virginia Union University. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  23. ^ Jackson Civil Rights Driving Tour. City of Jackson. 2014. p. 37. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  24. ^ "Guadalupe College: A Case History in Negro Higher Education 1884-1936". Ecommons.txstate.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  25. ^ "Lewis College of Business, once a Michigan jewel - African American Registry". Aaregistry.org. Archived from the original on 2017-10-26. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  26. ^ Newkirk, Vann R. (30 April 2012). "New Life for Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A 21st Century Perspective". McFarland. Retrieved 25 October 2017 – via Google Books.
  27. ^ "Storer College - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. Retrieved 25 October 2017.