인도의 분쟁 영토 목록 - List of disputed territories of India

인도의 분쟁 영토를 보여주는지도

인도 에는 분쟁 지역 이 여러 개 있습니다 . 영토 분쟁이 소유하거나 소유 또는 토지의 제어 새로운 상태로 두 개 이상의 상태 사이 이상 토지의 제어를 통해 의견이다 점령 국 이 더 이상 현재 새로운 인식하지 않는 이전의 상태에서 땅을 정복 한 후 상태.

인도는 이웃 국가 인 중화 인민 공화국 , 파키스탄 , 네팔영토 문제에 직면 해 있습니다. [1] 또한 대만 에서 중화 민국 과의 국경 분쟁도 있습니다 . [2] 인도는 부탄 과의 경계없는 국경을 해소했으며 , 여기에는 여러 가지 비리가 포함되어 있습니다. 인도는 또한 방글라데시스리랑카 와의 국경 분쟁을 해결했습니다 .

현재 분쟁

인도-차이나 국경

중국 자체에는 중국 (PRC)과 중화 민국 (ROC, 일반적으로 "대만"이라고 함)이라는 두 명의 실제 통치자가 있습니다. 그들은 서로의 정당성을 인정하지 않습니다. 중국은 인도-중국 국경 지역을 실제로 통제하고 있으며, ROC는 현재 인도와 육지 또는 해상 국경을 공유하지 않습니다. 그들의 견해는 아래에 나와 있습니다. LAC (Line of Actual Control)는 현재 인도-중국 간의 작전 경계입니다.

중화 인민 공화국의 입장

Depsang 평야는 인도 노조 영토의 경계에있는 라다크 와의 분쟁 지역 아커 사이 친 . 중국어 육군 , 인도와의 1962 전쟁 평야의 대부분을 점유 [3] 인도 평원의 서쪽 부분을 제어하면서. [4] 분쟁은 해결되지 않은 상태로 남아 있습니다. [5]

아루나 찰 프라데시 는 1972 년 1 월 20 일 북동쪽에 위치한 인도의 주입니다. 남쪽으로 아삼나가 랜드 주와 접해 있으며 동쪽으로 버마 , 서쪽 으로는 부탄 , 북쪽으로는 중국과 국경을 공유 하고 있습니다. 대부분의 영토는 중국이 남부 티베트의 일부로 주장하고 있습니다. 아루나 찰 프라데시의 북쪽 국경은 1914 년 영국 과 티베트 정부 사이의 조약 인 McMahon Line을 반영합니다.이 조약 은 중국 정부가 한 번도 수락하지 않았으며 조약에 명시된 충족되지 않은 조건으로 인해 티베트인들에게 무효로 간주되었습니다. [6]1950 년까지 인도 정부에 의해 광범위하게 시행되지 않았습니다.이 영토는 인도가 관리합니다. [7] [8]

중국의 입장

냉전 기간 동안 대만 의 중화 민국 정부 는 중국-인도 국경 분쟁에 대해 중국과 동일한 이해를 가졌습니다. [2] 1962 년 ROC 외무부McMahon Line 의 합법성을 인정하지 않았다고 밝혔다 . 같은 해 서방 국가들은 당시 ROC 지도자였던 장개석이 베이징을 고립시키기 위해 맥 마혼 라인의 합법성을 인정하도록 압력을 가했다 . [2] 그러나, 치앙은 맥마흔 라인 '중국에서 제국주의 부과'로 일축했다. 1987 년 2 월 인도는 '아루나 찰 중앙 관리 지역'의 지위를 아루나 찰 프라데시 주로 끌어 올리기위한 움직임ROC 외교부에 의해 무효로 선언되었습니다. [2] 정부는 공식 성명에서 McMahon Line 남쪽 ROC 영토의 '불법 점령'을 인정하지 않았으며 '아루나 찰 프라데시 주'의 설립은 불법 행위라고 밝혔다. 1995 년 인도 국회의원에 대한 응답으로 텡 페이 인 대사 (ROC의 첫 인도 대표)는 ROC가 맥 마혼 라인을 인정하지 않는다고 말했습니다. [2] 그러나, 탱은 맥마흔 라인에 대해 성명을 발표했다 지난 ROC의 공식이었다. 그 이후 ROC는 중국-인도 분쟁에 대해 어떠한 성명도 발표하지 않았습니다. [2]

분쟁 지역

중국의 통합 서부 극장 사령부 .

중국군인도와 함께 LAC 전체에 통합 서부 극장 사령부보유하고 있습니다. [9] 인도 군 은 LAC를 3 개의 구역으로 나눴습니다. 라다크를 가로 지르는 서부 구역 과 중국이 보유한 Aksai Chin, 히 마찰 프라데시우트 라칸 드 주를 가로 지르는 중앙 구역 , 시킴 과 아루나 찰 프라데시 구역을 가로 지르는 동부 구역 입니다. [10] 마찬가지로, 인도 공군뉴 델리에 기반을 둔 서부 항공 사령부 , Prayagraj 기반중앙 공군 사령부실롱은 기반 동부 공군 사령부를 LAC 부분을 충당하기 위해 여러 AFS (공군 역 /베이스) AGL (고급 착륙 접지 공항)와 helipads와 함께.

인도-중국 국경을 따라 서쪽에서 동쪽으로 분쟁 지역 목록 : [11]

분쟁 지역 행정 에 의해 통제되는 공군 기지 / AGL 의견 / 지구 전략적 맥락
인도 중국 인도 중국
Trans-Karakoram Tract (Shaksgam) 라다크 ( 레 지구 ) 신장 중국 (1963 년 이후) 다울 랏 베그 올디 인도와의 카슈미르 분쟁 해결에 따라 파키스탄이 1963 년 중국에 양도했습니다. [11] 참조 : [12] [13] [14] [15]
악사이 친 라다크 ( 레 지구 ) 신장 중국 (1962 년 이후) Daulat Beg Oldi AGL, 레 공항 참조 : [16] [11]
Demchok 섹터 라다크 ( 레 지구 ) 티베트 ( 응 가리 현 ) 인도와 중국은 각각 인더스 강 남쪽과 북쪽에 있습니다. 푹체 [16] 참고 : [11]
Chumar (2 개 별도의 비 연속 Chumur 북한Chumur 사우스 하위 분야) 라다크 (레 지구) 티베트 인도 Nyoma , [16] Padum AGL, [16] Chumur의 헬기 착륙장. 참고 : [11]
카우 릭 히 마찰 프라데시 ( 라 하울 및 스피 티 지구 ) [11] 티베트 인도 Chinyalisaur 공항 AGL, Pathankot 공항 참고 : [11]
트라 시강 - Shipki 라 히 마찰 프라데시 ( Kinnaur 지구 ) 티베트 인도 Chinyalisaur AGL, Pathankot 공항 인도 군부대가있는 Shipki La는 무역을위한 중요한 패스입니다.
참조 : [11] [17]
- 넬랑 - 풀람 섬다 Uttarakhand ( Uttarkashi 지구 ) 티베트 인도 Chinyalisaur AGL, Pathankot 공항 이 지역은 자당 마을 도 포함합니다. 참조 : [11]
바라 호티 Uttarakhand ( Chamoli 지구 ) 티베트 인도 [11] Chinyalisaur AGL, Pithoragarh 공항 AGL 이 지역은 또한 Silakang Lapthal Sangcha Malla 마을을 포함합니다. [11]
참고 : [11]
아루나 찰 프라데시 아루나 찰 프라데시 티베트 인도 Tawang AFS 및 7 AGLS [18] ( Aalo , Mechuka , Pasighat , Tuting , Vijoynagar , Walong , Ziro ) 대부분의 국가는 중국이 주장합니다. [11]
참고 : [11]

관련 지리 전략적 맥락에서 DoklamAndaman-Malacca Strait-South China Sea 선박 항로 도 중요한 측면입니다.

Pakistan

Kashmir

Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan in which China is playing a third-party role.[30][31] Conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as both India and Pakistan claimed the entirety of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir with Pakistan recognizing Chinese sovereignty over the Trans-Karakoram Tract and Aksai Chin since 1963.[13] India controls 70% of its population and approximately 55% of the land area including Jammu, Kashmir Valley, most of Ladakh, and Siachen Glacier.[32] Pakistan controls approximately 30% of land including Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan,and China controls the remaining 15% of the land including Aksai Chin and mostly uninhabited Trans-Karakoram Tract, and part of the Demchok sector.[33][34][35][36][37][38][39]

Sir Creek

Sir Creek, a 96-km (60-mi) tidal estuary in the uninhabited marshlands of the Indus River Delta on the border between India and Pakistan which flows into the Arabian Sea and separates Gujarat state in India from Sindh province in Pakistan.[40] The long-standing India-Pakistan Sir Creek border dispute stems from the demarcation "from the mouth of Sir Creek to the top of Sir Creek, and from the top of Sir Creek eastward to a point on the line designated on the Western Terminus".[40][41] From this point onward, the boundary is unambiguously fixed as defined by the Tribunal Award of 1968.[42]

네팔

인도와 네팔 간의 주요 분쟁 지역은 Kalapani , Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh, Susta , Mechi 및 Tanakpur입니다. [43] 현재 인도와 네팔 사이에 약 60,000 헥타르의 국경 토지가 분쟁 중이다. [44]

칼라 파니 영토

Although claimed by Nepal, Kalapani has been administered by Indian army since the 1962 border war with China.[43] The 1816 Treaty of Sugauli signed by Kingdom of Nepal and British India in 1816 utilizes the Kali River as Nepal's western boundary with India. However, lack of consensus on what is the precise location of the river Kali has resulted in dispute over whether the land consisting Kalapani, Limpiyadhura and Lipulekh is part of India or Nepal.[45] Some scholars suggest that the lack of consensus is because of British cartographers who kept on shifting the line demarcating the river eastwards for strategic reasons. However, there are also some scholars who believe that lack of consensus is due to the shift in the course of the river over time.[45]

In November 2019, India issued a new political map of India which showed Kalapani as part of India. The new political map of India was rejected by Nepal. Mass protest against India took place across Nepal and outside Indian embassy in Nepal. Protesters accused India of occupying their land.[46] In May 2020, Indian Defence minister, Rajnath Singh inaugurated a 80-km road from Dharchula to Lipulekh pass. Nepal protested against the construction of road in Lipulekh area.[47] Lipulekh area is currently under India's control. However, government of Nepal states that the Lipulekh area belongs to Nepal. On 20 May 2020, Nepal launched its own map showing Kalapani, Limpiyadhura and Lipulekh as parts of its own territory.[48] The new map was subsequently approved by the Nepali parliament on 18 June 2020. India opposed the move, claiming that the decision to include Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh and Kalapani is not based on evidence or historical facts.[49]

On 15 June 2020, Indian border police, Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) reported that border pillars which served as demarcation, were missing along the India-Nepal border. SSB also reported that Nepali border police has established five new border outpost near the disputed area.[50] On 19 June, Nepal started deploying its troops near the Kalapani and other disputed areas. The troops had established camps and they were working on building a helipad in the area.[51] In the same month Nepali Army Chief, General Purna Chandra Thapa, after visiting Kalapani border area, stated that Nepali army will start building army barracks and border outposts near the Kalapani area.[52] On 21 June, Indian media reported that radio stations in Nepal were conducting a propaganda campaign against India by playing anti-India songs.[53]

Susta territory

Susta is another territory which is disputed between Nepal and India. It currently controlled by India and is a part of Bihar province. Residents of a village in Susta state that Susta belongs to Nepal and they are Nepali citizens.[54] The 1816 Treaty of Sugauli defined Gandaki river as the international boundary between India and Nepal. The right bank of Gandaki river was under Nepal’s control while the left bank was under India's control. Susta village was initially on the right bank when the treaty was signed and it was a part of Nepal. However, over the years, the Gandaki river changed its course and Susta moved to the left bank and is now currently under India's control.[54] The 네팔 정부 는 수 스타가 네팔에 속하고 인도 정부가이 지역을 반환해야한다고 거듭 언급했습니다.

해결 된 분쟁

스리랑카

Kachatheevu 섬의 지위에 대한 분쟁 은 1974 년 양국 간의 합의에 의해 해결되었습니다. [55]

방글라데시

South Talpatti (as it was known internationally) or Sheikh Mujib Island (as it was known by Bangladeshi Awami league supporters) was a small uninhabited offshore sandbar landform in the Bay of Bengal, off the coast of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta region. It emerged in the Bay of Bengal on the Bangladesh side of river that makes the boundary between India and Bangladesh in the aftermath of the Bhola cyclone in 1970, and disappeared before or during Cyclone Aila in 2009. In March 2010, Sugata Hazra of the School of Oceanographic Studies at Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India, said that the island had disappeared and that sea level rise caused by climate change was a factor.[56]

The enclaves were reputedly part of a high stake card or chess games centuries ago between two regional kings, the Maharaja of Cooch Behar and the Nawab of Rangpur and the result of a confused outcome of a treaty between the Kingdom of Cooch Behar and the Mughal Empire. After the partition of India in 1947, Cooch Behar district was merged with India and Rangpur went to then East Pakistan, which became Bangladesh in 1971. The prime ministers of India and Bangladesh signed a Land Boundary Agreement in 1974 to exchange enclaves and simplify the international border. In 1974 Bangladesh approved a proposed treaty, Land Boundary Agreement, to exchange all enclaves within each other's territories, but India did not ratify it. Another agreement was agreed upon in 2011 to exchange enclaves and adverse possessions. A revised version of the agreement was finally adopted by the two countries 41 years later, when the Parliament of India passed the 100th Amendment Act to the Indian Constitution on May 7, 2015.[57] Inside the main part of Bangladesh, there were 111 Indian enclaves (17,160.63 acres), while inside the main part of India, there were 51 Bangladeshi enclaves (7,110.02 acres). In respect of adverse possessions, India received 2,777.038 acres of land and transferred 2267.682 acres to Bangladesh. India ratified the agreement by constitutional amendment in May 2015.[58] Under this agreement, the enclave residents could continue to reside at their present location or move to the country of their choice.[59][60] The adverse possession of Berubari went to Bangladesh.[61] The unmarked borders between the nations were also finally solved regarding Daikhata-Dumabari, Muhurichar river island[62] and Pyrdiwah.[63]

See also

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