남부 동맹 기념물 및 기념관 목록 - List of Confederate monuments and memorials

미국 남부의 기념비, 기념관 및 상징물에 대한 공개 전시는 논란이되고 있으며 계속해서 논란이되고 있습니다. 다음은 인 동맹 기념비와 기념관의 목록을 공개 디스플레이와의 상징으로 설립되었다 아메리카 연합국 (CSA), 남부 동맹 지도자, 또는의 남부 동맹 군인 미국의 남북 전쟁 . 많은 기념물과 기념관이 제거되었거나 제거되고 있습니다. ( 남군 기념비 및 기념관 제거 참조 ) 미국 남북 전쟁 기념의 일부로 , 기념비와 동상, 깃발, 공휴일이 포함됩니다.및 기타 준수 사항, 학교, 도로, 공원, 교량, 건물, 카운티, 도시, 호수, 댐, 군사 기지 및 기타 공공 구조물의 이름. [a] 2018 년 12 월 특별 보고서에서 스미소니언 매거진 은 "지난 10 년 동안 납세자들은 최소한 4 천만 달러를 연방 기념비 (동상, 주택, 공원, 박물관, 도서관 및 공동 묘지)와 남부 연합 유산 단체에 기부했습니다. " [2]

이 목록 에는 남북 전쟁 이나 백인 우월주의기원 과 관련된 수치 는 포함되지 않지만 , 볼티모어 아나 폴리스메릴랜드 주 프레드릭에 있는 대법관 Roger B. Taney의 동상을 포함하여 남부 동맹과는 관련이 없습니다 . 카운티도시 친 노예 제도의 하원 의원의 이름을 딴 프레스턴 브룩스 ; 논란이되고있는 노스 캐롤라이나 대법원장 Thomas Ruffin의 초상화 ; [3] 남부 정치가 John C. Calhoun에 대한 수많은 기념관(연맹의 1 ¢ 우표에 기념), 칼훈의 기념비는 파괴자들의 "가장 일관된 표적"이었습니다. [4] 또한 노스 캐롤라이나 주지사 Charles Aycock미시시피 주지사 James K. Vardaman같은 남북 전쟁 이후 백인 우월 주의자들 도 포함하지 않습니다 .

기념비기념관 은 아래에 주별 알파벳순 각주의 도시 별로 나열되어 있습니다. 목록에없는 주에는 목록에 대한 알려진 적격 항목이 없습니다. [5]

역사

기념비 건물 및 헌납

기념관은 공공 비용으로 또는 민간 단체 및 기부자들의 자금으로 공공 장소 (법원 부지 포함)에 세워졌습니다. 수많은 개인 기념관도 건립되었습니다.

남부 빈곤 법 센터 (SPLC)에서 조사한 남부 빈곤 법 센터 (SPLC)가 설립 연도별로 조사한 연방 및 그 지도자들의 공공 상징 차트 . 이것들의 대부분은 짐 크로우 시대 또는 시민권 운동 중에 제기되었습니다 . [b] 이 두 기간은 또한 남북 전쟁의 50 주년과 100 주년과 일치했습니다. [c] [6]

스미소니언 매거진 에 따르면 , "연맹 기념비는 단순한 가보, 과거 시대의 유물이 아닙니다. 대신 미국 납세자들은 오늘날에도 이러한 공물에 막대한 투자를하고 있습니다." [2] 이 보고서는 또한 기념물이 잃어버린 원인 , 백인 우월주의 신화 를 홍보하기 위해 건설되고 정기적으로 유지되고 있다고 결론 지 었으며, 설립 된 수십 년 동안 아프리카 계 미국인 지도자들은이 기념물과 그들이 대표하는 것에 대해 정기적으로 항의했습니다. [2]

전쟁 중에는 주로 배와 지명으로 기념비가 많이 만들어졌습니다. 전쟁이 끝난 후 로버트 E. 리 는 자신이 "전쟁의 상처를 계속 열어 라"라고 생각하는 것처럼 어떤 기념물에도 반대한다고 여러 번 말했습니다. [7] 그럼에도 불구하고, 기념비와 기념관은 미국의 남북 전쟁 직후에 전용되는 것을 계속했다. [8] [ 더 나은 출처 필요 ] 의회치카 마우가와 채터 누가에 최초의 국립 군사 공원건립 한 1890 년 이후 수년 동안 더 많은 기념물이 헌납되었으며 , 20 세기가 되자 남북 전쟁의 5 개 전장이 보존되었습니다. : Chickamauga-Chattanooga,Antietam , Gettysburg , ShilohVicksburg . 빅스 버그 국립 군사 공원에는 공원 기념물의 95 % 이상이 공원이 1899 년에 설립 된 후 처음 18 년 동안 세워졌습니다. [9]

짐 크로우

남부 동맹 기념비 건설은 종종 남부의 Jim Crow 법률 을 홍보하고 정당화하기위한 광범위한 캠페인의 일부였습니다 . [10] [1] [11] 미국 역사 협회 (AHA) 에 따르면 , 20 세기 초에 남부 연맹 기념비의 건립은 "법적으로 강제 된 분리와 남부 전역에 걸쳐 광범위한 선거권 박탈의 시작의 일부이자 소포"였습니다. AHA에 따르면,이 기간 동안 건립 된 연방 기념관은 "부분적으로는 재건 을 전복시키는 데 필요한 테러리즘을 모호하게하고 아프리카 계 미국인을 정치적으로 위협하고 대중 생활의 주류로부터 격리시키기위한 것"이었습니다. 나중에 기념비 건물의 물결은시민권 운동 , 그리고 AHA에 따르면 "이러한 백인 우월주의의 상징은 여전히 ​​유사한 목적을 위해 호출되고 있습니다." [12] 스미소니언 매거진 에 따르면 , "단순히 역사적인 사건과 사람들의 표식이되는 것이 아니라, 이러한 기념비는 노예 소유 사회에 경의를 표하기 위해 짐 크로우 정부가 만들고 자금을 지원했습니다. 아프리카 계 미국인에 대한 지배. " [2]

시카고 대학의 역사가 Jane Dailey에 따르면 기념비의 목적은 과거를 기념하는 것이 아니라 "백인 우월 주의적 미래"를 장려하기위한 것이 었습니다. [13] 샬럿에있는 노스 캐롤라이나 대학의 또 다른 역사가 Karen L. Cox 는 기념비가 "잔인한 인종 차별주의 짐 크로우 시대의 유산"이며 "연맹 기념비의 요점은 기념하는 것입니다. 백인 우월 ". [11] 유엔사 출신의 또 다른 역사가 인 James Leloudis는 "이 기념비의 자금 제공자와 후원자는 Jim Crow 시대에 대한 정치 교육과 정당성 및 백인 남성의 통치권을 요구하고 있음을 매우 분명하게 밝혔습니다."라고 말했습니다. [14]그들은 남북 전쟁을 훨씬 다르게 기억하고 그들을 노예로 유지하기 위해 싸운 사람들을 존경하는 데 관심이 없었던 남부 아프리카 계 미국인의 동의 또는 심지어 입력없이 세워졌습니다. [15] 남북 전쟁 역사가 인 주디스 기스 버그 ( Villanova University) 역사 교수에 따르면 , "백인 우월주의는 실제로이 조각상이 나타내는 것입니다." [16] 일부 기념물은 비록 부차적이지만 도시 아름다운 운동의 일환으로 도시를 아름답게하기위한 것이 었습니다 . [17]

2018 년 6 월 연설에서 버지니아 공대 (Virginia Tech University)남북 전쟁 역사가 James I. Robertson Jr. 는 기념비가 "Jim Crow의 반항의 신호"가 아니라고 말하면서 기념비를 해체하거나 파괴하려는 현재 추세를 "멍청한 시대"라고 언급했습니다. "미국인 세대가 고통스럽게 구축해 온 단결을 찢어 버리는 요소들"에 의해 동기가 부여되었습니다. [18] 카트리나 던 존슨, 사우스 캐롤라이나 남부 연합 유물 실 및 군사 박물관 큐레이터, "전국의 수천 가족이 군인의 유해를 되 찾을 수 없었습니다. 많은 사람들이 전장이나 수용소에서 사랑하는 사람의 정확한 운명을 알지 못했습니다. 그러한 파괴적인 손실의 심리적 영향은 시도 할 때 과소 평가할 수 없습니다. 남부 기념비의 주요 동기를 이해하기 위해. " [19]

남북 전쟁 이후 수십 년 동안 많은 남부 동맹 국가와 국경 국가 에서 많은 경우에 여성 기념 협회 , 연합의 연합 딸 (UDC), 연합 연합 재향 군인 (UCV), 남부 연합 재향 군인의 아들 ( SCV), 유산 보존 협회 및 기타 기념 조직. [20] [21] [22] 다른 남부 동맹 기념비는 남북 전쟁 전장에 있습니다. 많은 남부 동맹 기념비가 국가 유적지에 등재되어 있습니다., 별도로 또는 법원 또는 역사 지구 목록 내에서 기고 대상으로. 미술사 학자 신시아 밀스 (Cynthia Mills)와 파멜라 심슨 (Pamela Simpson)은 ' 잃어버린 원인 에 대한 기념비'에서 그들이 정의한 유형의 남부 연맹 기념비의 대부분은 "전쟁의 긍정적 인 비전을 보존하기 위해 백인 여성들이 위임 한 것"이라고 주장했습니다. [23] [24]

19 세기 후반에 화강암 및 청동 산업의 기술 혁신은 비용을 절감하는 데 도움이되었고 작은 마을에서 기념물을 더 저렴하게 만들었습니다. 이 기회를 활용하고자하는 기업들은 종종 거의 동일한 기념물 사본을 남북한에 판매했습니다. [25]

기념비 건설의 또 다른 물결은 시민권 운동미국 남북 전쟁 100 주년동시에 일어 났습니다 . [1] : 11 2000 년과 2017 년 사이에 최소한 7 개의 재 헌납을 포함하여 최소한 32 개의 남부 동맹 기념비가 헌납되었습니다. [26] [27] [28] [29]

학술 연구

기념물에 대한 학술 연구는 1980 년대에 시작되었습니다. 1983 년 John J. Winberry는 RW Widener의 작업 데이터를 기반으로 한 연구를 발표했습니다. [30] [31]그는 기념비의 주요 건축 기간은 1889 년부터 1929 년까지였으며 법원 광장에 세워진 기념비의 절반 이상이 1902 년에서 1912 년 사이에 건축되었다고 추정했습니다. 그는 기념비를위한 4 개의 주요 위치를 결정했습니다. 전장, 묘지, 카운티 법원 경내 및 주 의사당 경내. 법원 기념물의 1/3 이상이 죽은 자에게 헌정되었습니다. 그의 연구에서 묘지 기념물의 대부분은 1900 년 이전에 지어졌고, 대부분의 법원 기념물은 1900 년 이후에 세워졌습니다. 그의 연구에서 666 개의 기념물 중 55 %는 남부군 군인이었고 28 %는 오벨리스크였습니다. 군인은 법원 경내를 지배했으며 오벨리스크는 묘지 기념물의 거의 절반을 차지합니다. 병사 상이 항상 북쪽을 향하고 있다는 생각은 사실이 아닌 것으로 밝혀졌으며 병사들은 대개 법원과 같은 방향을 향하고있었습니다. 그는 기념물이 "비문이 몇 번만 반복되는 경우"로 "매우 다양"하다고 언급했습니다.[31]

그는 기념물을 네 가지 유형으로 분류했습니다. 유형 1은 퍼레이드 휴지 에서 무기를 들고 기둥 위에있는 남부군 병사 였거나 무기없이 먼 곳을 응시했습니다. 이것들은 연구 된 기념물의 약 절반을 차지했습니다. 그러나 그들은 법원 기념물 중에서 가장 인기가 있습니다. 유형 2는 소총을 준비하거나 깃발이나 나팔을 들고 기둥에있는 남부군 병사였습니다. 유형 3은 오벨리스크였으며, 종종 휘장으로 덮여 있고 대포 또는 항아리가 있습니다. 이 유형은 연구 된 기념물의 28 % 였지만 묘지에있는 기념물의 48 %와 법원 기념물의 18 %였습니다. 유형 4는 아치, 서있는 돌, 명판, 분수 등을 포함하는 기타 그룹이었습니다. 이들은 연구 된 기념물의 17 %를 차지합니다. [31]

법원 기념비의 3 분의 1 이상은 특별히 남부군 사망자에게 헌정되었습니다. 최초의 법원 기념비는 1867 년 테네시 주 볼리바르 에 세워졌습니다. 1880 년까지 9 개의 법원 기념비가 세워졌습니다. Winberry는 두 곳의 법원 기념물 센터에 주목했습니다. 그 전통이 노스 캐롤라이나로 퍼진 버지니아의 포토 맥 카운티와 조지아, 사우스 캐롤라이나 및 북부 플로리다를 포함하는 더 넓은 지역입니다. 법원 기념비의 확산은 United Confederate Veterans 및 그 출판물과 같은 조직의 도움을 받았지만 다른 요소도 효과적 일 수 있습니다. [31]

Winberry는 묘지에서 법원으로 이동 한 네 가지 이유를 나열했습니다. 첫 번째는 죽은 남부 동맹의 기억을 보존하고 귀환 한 참전 용사를 인정할 필요성이었습니다. 두 번째는 전쟁 후 남부의 재건을 축하하는 것이 었습니다. 세 번째는 잃어버린 원인을 낭만 화 한 것이었고 네 번째는 아프리카 계 미국인 남부인의 이익에 반하는 공동 유산으로 백인 인구를 통합하는 것이 었습니다. 그는 다음과 같이 결론을 내 렸습니다. "동맹 기념비에 대한이 네 가지 가능한 설명 중 어느 것도 그 자체로 적절하거나 완전하지 않습니다. 기념비는 상징이지만 과거의 기억인지, 현재를 기념하는지, 미래의 전조인지 여부 대답하기 어려운 질문으로 남아 있습니다. 기념비와 상징은 복잡하고 때로는 해독 할 수 없습니다. " [31]

공공 기물 파손

6 월 19 일 현재, 12 개 이상의 남부 동맹 기념비가 2019 년에 일반적으로 페인트로 파손되었습니다. [32] [33] [ 업데이트 필요 ]

제거

2017 년 5 월 17 일, 로버트 E. 리의 남부 동맹 기념비가 받침대 에서 제거되었습니다.

남부 빈곤 법 센터 (SPLC) 에 따르면 2017 년 4 월 현재 최소 60 개의 연방 상징이 2015 년 이후 제거되거나 이름이 변경되었습니다 . [34] 동시에 여러 남부 주에서 법은 동상과 기념관의 제거와 공원, 도로 및 학교의 이름 변경을 제한하거나 완전히 금지합니다. [35] [36] [37] [38] [39]

2017 년 로이터 설문 조사에 따르면 성인의 54 %가 기념비가 모든 공공 장소에 남아 있어야한다고 답했고 27 %는 제거해야한다고 답했으며 19 %는 확실하지 않다고 답했습니다. 결과는 인종과 정치에 따라 나뉘었고 백인과 공화당 원은 기념물을 제자리에 유지하는 것을 선호했으며 흑인과 민주당 원은 제거를지지 할 가능성이 더 높았습니다. [40] [41] HuffPost / YouGov의 유사한 2017 년 설문 조사에 따르면 응답자의 3 분의 1이 제거를 선호하는 반면 49 %는 반대했습니다. [42] [43]

조지 플로이드 시위가 진행되는 동안 제거에 대한지지가 증가 하여 52 %가 제거에 찬성하고 44 %가 반대했습니다. [44] [45]

기간 제거 횟수 [46]
1865-2009 2
2009-2014
2015 년 ( 찰스턴 교회 촬영 이후 ) 4
2016 년 4
2017 년 ( Charlottesville 자동차 공격의 해 ) 36
2018 년 4
2019 년 4
2020 년 5 월 25 일 -7 월 2 일 ( George Floyd 시위 중 ) 30

지리적 분포

남부 동맹 기념비는 미국 남부 전역에 널리 분포되어 있습니다. [31] 분배 패턴 동맹의 일반적인 정치적 경계를 따른다. [31] 1503 개 이상의 공공 기념물과 연방 기념관 중 718 개 이상이 기념물과 동상입니다. 조지아, 버지니아 또는 노스 캐롤라이나에는 거의 300 개의 기념물과 동상이 있습니다. 북부 상태 의 일부가 남아 연합서방 국가 대부분 남북 전쟁 이후 정착 된, 남부 연방에 거의 또는 전혀 기념관이있다.

내셔널

미국 국회 의사당

에서 구 개 동맹 수치가 있습니다 국립 조각상 홀 컬렉션 에서, 미국 국회 의사당은 .

알링턴 국립 묘지

남부 동맹 기념관, 알링턴 국립 묘지
NPS는이 건물을 "로버트 E. 리에 대한 국가의 기념비"라고 설명합니다. 그것은 남북 전쟁 후 평화와 재결합을 촉진하는 그의 역할을 포함하여 특정 이유로 그를 기립니다. 더 큰 의미에서 그것은 연구와 사색의 장소로 존재합니다. 미국 역사에서 가장 어려운 부분의 의미 : 군 복무, 희생, 시민권, 의무, 충성, 노예제도 및 자유. " [61]

동전과 우표

  • 로버트 E. 리와 스톤 월 잭슨은 "스톤 마운틴"이라는 단어와 함께 1925 년 미국 조폐국 에서 미화 50 달러 기념 은화묘사되었습니다 . 이 동전은 남부 동맹 장군을 기리는 Stone Mountain 기념비를 위한 모금 행사였습니다 . 승인 된 발행물은 500 만 코인으로 개당 1 달러에 팔렸지만 지나치게 낙관적이며 130 만 코인 만 출시되었으며 그중 상당수가 액면가로 사용 된 후 유통되었습니다. [63] 상기 역방향에 캡션 "남쪽의 병사의 용기에 기념"읽는다.
  • Robert E. Lee는 적어도 5 개의 미국 우표로 기념되었습니다. 1936 ~ 37 년 우표 한 장에는 Lee 장군과 Stonewall Jackson과 Lee의 집 Stratford Hall이 있습니다. [64]

미군

베이스

이전 남부 연합 국가에는 남부 연합 군사 지도자를 기리기 위해 명명 된 10 개의 주요 미군 기지가 있습니다. [1] 2015 년 미 국방부는 이러한 시설의 이름을 바꾸지 않겠다고 선언했고 [65] 2017 년에 추가 논평을 거부했습니다. [66]

Facilities

  • Lee Barracks, named for CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee (1962), at U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York.[70]
  • Lee Barracks (de) (Mainz, Germany), closed in 1992
  • U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland:
    • Buchanan House, the Naval Academy superintendent's home, named for CSA naval officer Franklin Buchanan.[71] A road near the house is also memorialized in Buchanan's name.
    • Maury Hall, home to the academy's division of Weapons and Systems Engineering, named for US naval officer in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments at Washington and later CSA naval officer Matthew Fontaine Maury.[71][72]

Current ships

Former ships

Several ships named for Confederate leaders fell into Union hands during the Civil War. The Union Navy retained the names of these ships while turning their guns against the Confederacy:

Multi-state highways

On October 16, 2018, the Board of Commissioners of Orange County, North Carolina (location of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, see Silent Sam), voted unanimously to repeal the county's 1959 resolution naming for Davis the portion of U.S. 15 running through the county.[74]

Alabama

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 122 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Alabama.[75]

Alaska

  • Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area: "Confederate Gulch"[76] and "Union Gulch" both drain the side of a mineralized mountain mass northeast of Wiseman. Gold was discovered in both gulches in the early 20th century, though only Union Gulch was mined.[77]

Arizona

As of 20 August 2020, only two Confederate related plaques on public property remain in Phoenix and Sierra Vista, Arizona.[75]

Type of monument Date Location Details Image
Public 1931 Phoenix Water fountain at Maricopa County Courthouse dedicated to one of the original founders of Phoenix and a former Confederate Army lieutenant, Jack Swilling[78][79] Lt. Jack Swilling and Wife Trinidad Memorial.jpg
Public 2010 Sierra Vista Confederate Memorial, Historical Soldiers Memorial Cemetery area of the state-owned Southern Arizona Veterans' Memorial Cemetery. The monument was erected in to honor the 21 soldiers interred in that cemetery who served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and later fought in Indian wars in Arizona as members of the U.S. Army.[80][81]
Private 1999 Phoenix Arizona Confederate Veterans Monument, at Greenwood Memory Lawn Cemetery; erected by SCV.[80] CSA cemetery marker, Phoenix AZ, USA.jpg
Public 1961 - 2020 Phoenix Memorial to Arizona Confederate Troops, in Wesley Bolin Park, next to the Arizona State Capitol; UDC memorial.[80] CSA monument, Phoenix AZ, USA.jpg
Road 1943 - 2020 Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway marker 50 mi (80 km) east of Phoenix; erected by UDC. Tarred and feathered in August 2017.[80][82]
Public 1984 - 2015 Picacho Peak State Park A commemorative sign and a plaque commemorated the Battle of Picacho Pass, the westernmost Confederate engagement of the war. The sign is "dedicated to Capt. Sherod Hunter's 'Arizona Rangers, Arizona Volunteers' C.S.A.", while the plaque states three Union soldiers buried on battlefield and includes both US Union and CSA flags. The sign was removed in 2015 due to deterioration of the wood and the plaque was moved onto the Union stone monument. [80][83][84] Picacho-Battle of Picacho Marker.jpg

Arkansas

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 65 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arkansas.[75]

State capitol

Monuments

Van Buren Confederate Monument at Crawford County Courthouse in Van Buren, Arkansas

Courthouse monuments

Other public monuments

Confederate Statue, Fayetteville Confederate Cemetery
Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock National Cemetery
Little Rock Confederate Memorial, Little Rock National Cemetery

Inhabited places

Parks

Roads

Schools

State symbols

Flag of Arkansas since 1913
  • Flag of Arkansas The blue star above "ARKANSAS" represents the Confederate States of America and is placed above the three other stars for the countries (Spain, France and the US) to which the State belonged before statehood. The diamond represents the nations only diamond mine with bordering 25 stars symbolizing 25th state to join.[109] The design of the border around the white diamond evokes the saltire found on the Confederate battle flag.[110]

California

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least five public spaces with Confederate monuments in California.[75]

Monuments

Roads

Schools

  • Anaheim: Savanna High School (1961) mascot has always been Johnny Rebel and a fiberglass statue of a Confederate soldier stood in the courtyard from 1964 until 2009[113] when it was removed due to deterioration. The school colors are red and grey and the school fields the Savanna Mighty Marching Rebel Band and Color Guard.

Mountains and recreation

Mine

Stonewall Jackson Mine, San Diego County, circa 1872
  • San Diego County: Stonewall Jackson Mine (1870-1893), the richest gold mine in southern California history[119]

Colorado

Robert E. Lee Mine in Leadville. Photo by William Henry Jackson.

Schools

  • Keenesburg: Weld Central Senior High School and Weld Central Middle School share the Weld Central Rebel, a Civil-war-era-soldier which used to appear with depictions of Confederate flags. School teams are named Rebels.[120]

Monument

Mine

Delaware

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Delaware.[75]

District of Columbia

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least nine public Confederate monuments in Washington, D.C., mostly in the National Statuary Hall Collection. (See above)[75]

  • Albert Pike Memorial (1901):[126] An outdoor statue that is owned by the National Park Service at 3rd and D Streets NW in the Judiciary Square neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Pike was a Confederate General and leading Freemason and is dressed as a Mason in the sculpture.[75][49] The statue is a "portrait of Albert Pike as a Masonic leader and not as a general in the military."[127][128][129] "Eight D.C. elected officials have asked the National Park Service to remove" the statue.[130] On June 19, 2020, protesters tore down the statue and set it on fire as part of the George Floyd protests because of Pike's association with the Confederacy.

Florida

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 63 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Florida.[75]

An August 2017 meeting of the Florida League of Mayors was devoted to the topic of what to do with Civil War monuments.[131]

State capitol

State symbol

Flag of Florida since 1900
  • The current flag of Florida, adopted by popular referendum in 1900, with minor changes in 1985, contains the St. Andrew's Cross. It is believed that the Cross was added in memory of, and showing support for, the Confederacy.[134][135][136] Others instead say there is no link with the Confederacy, but that the saltire recalls the Cross of Burgundy, the emblem of New Spain.[137][138][139] The addition of the Cross was proposed by Governor Francis P. Fleming, a former Confederate soldier, who was strongly committed to racial segregation.

State holiday

  • In Florida, Robert E. Lee's birthday (January 19), Confederate Memorial Day (April 26), and Jefferson Davis's birthday (June 3) are legal holidays.[140]

Monuments

Courthouse monuments

Unveiling of Confederate Monument, Ocala, 1908

Other public monuments

  • Daytona Beach:
    • Confederate Sun Dial Monument (1961)[30] Originally a marble base and column topped with a sundial (by the early 1980s all that remained was its base and its bronze plaque). Dedicated to the Confederate dead. Erected by United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1961. Plaque was removed by the City of Daytona Beach in 2017 after violent clashes in Charlottesville, Virginia over their Robert E. Lee monument. Was to be given to Halifax Historical Museum.[147]
    • Two other bronze plaques were erected in Riverfront Park by the Sons of Confederate Veterans in 1979 and 1985, which listed the names of Confederate veterans buried in East Volusia County. They were mounted on a long granite wall with other plaques commemorating various US wars. They were also removed by the city in 2017 to also be given to the Halifax Historical Museum.[147]
    • Confederate Boulder Monument (1979)[30]:33
  • Dixie County: American Veteran Monument, Highway 98 west of Old Town, dedicated to Confederate veterans (ca. 2005)[148]
  • Jefferson County, Florida: Monument to Stonewall Jackson
  • Ellenton:
  • Fernandina Beach: Statue of David Levy Yulee.[152]
Yellow Bluff Fort Monument
United Daughters of the Confederacy members seated around a Confederate monument in Lakeland, 1915
  • Leon County: A plaque commemorating Robert E. Lee and the Dixie Highway on Thomasville Road (U.S. Highway 319), one mile from the Georgia state line. Erected 1926 by the Anna Jackson Chapter of Daughters of the Confederacy.[143]
  • Madison: Confederate monument, Four Freedoms Park (1909). Lists names of men who died from county. Nearby sits a monument to former slaves in the county.[143][30]:35
  • Miami: Confederate monument, Confederate Circle in City Cemetery (1914 at the Dade County Courthouse, was moved to cemetery in 1927)[161][30]:36
Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park
  • Olustee:
    • Battlefield monument, Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park (1912). Inscription: Here was fought on February 20, 1864 the Battle of Ocean Pond under the immediate command of General Alfred Holt Colquitt, "Hero of Olustee." This decisive engagement prevented a Sherman-like invasion of Georgia from the south. Erected April 20, 1936, by the Alfred Holt Colquitt Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy Ga. Div.
    • CSA Brigadier General Joseph Finnegan Monument, Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park (1912). "Placed by The United Daughters of the Confederacy Florida Division In Memory of Brig. Gen. Joseph Finegan Commander of the District of Middle and East Florida So well did he perform his part that a signal victory over the Federals was won in the Battle of Olustee Feb. 20, 1864"
  • Pensacola:
    • Florida Square was renamed Lee Square in 1889.[162]
    • A 50-foot monument to Our Confederate Dead, erected in 1891, is in Lee Square.[163] It commemorates Jefferson Davis, Pensacolian Confederate veterans Stephen R. Mallory (Secretary of the Confederate Navy) and Edward Aylesworth Perry (Confederate General and Governor of Florida 1885-1889), and "the Uncrowned Heroes of the Southern Confederacy." The mayor of Pensacola has called for its removal.[162]
  • Perry: Confederate monument, Taylor County Sports Complex (2007)[164][165]
  • Quincy: Confederate memorial, Soldiers Cemetery within Eastern Cemetery, part of the town's National Register Historic District (2010). The memorial also notes the restoration of the historic fence.[166][167]
  • St. Augustine:
    • Confederate monument, on the Plaza de la Constitución (1879).[168] "The Confederate Memorial Contextualization Advisory Committee, a seven-member task force comprised mostly of historians", in 2018 recommended to the City Commission that the monument be kept, with the addition of "some necessary context".[169]
  • St. Cloud: Confederate monument, Veterans Park (2006)[170]
  • St. Petersburg: Confederate monument, Greenwood Cemetery (1900)[171]
  • Tampa: There is a stained-glass window donated by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1906 in honor of Father Abram Ryan, called "Poet of the Confederacy", in the Sacred Heart Catholic Church.
  • Trenton: Confederate monument, across from Gilchrist County Courthouse in Veterans' Park (2010)[172]
  • Woodville: In Loving Memory Monument, Natural Bridge Battlefield Historic State Park (1922)[30]:37 A plaque placed at the base of the monument in 2000 lists the names of those who died as a result of the battle.[173]

Private monuments

  • Alachua: Confederate monument, Newnansville Cemetery (2002) by the Alachua Lions Club[174]
  • Bradfordville, unincorporated community in Leon County: Robert E. Lee Monument, dedicated along Highway 319 in 1927 by UDC. Moved in the 1960s and 1990s, it is now located about a mile south of the Georgia border.[175][176]
  • Dade City: Confederate memorial, Townsend House Cemetery (2010)[177]
  • Deland: Confederate Veteran Memorial, Oakdale Cemetery (1958)[178]
  • Kissimmee: Granite obelisk in Rose Hill Cemetery, dedicated to Confederate veterans buried in Osceola County with their names listed on the monument. Erected 2002 by Sons of Confederate Veterans.[147]
  • Lake City:
    • Last Confederate War Widow, Oaklawn Cemetery, erected after her death in 1985. The memorial and the cemetery are along the Florida Civil War Heritage Trail.[179][180]:28
    • Our Confederate Dead, Oaklawn Cemetery (1901, rededicated 1996). A tall obelisk in memory of the unnamed soldiers who died at the nearby Battle of Olustee or in the town's Confederate hospital. The cemetery is the focal point of the opening of Lake City's annual Olustee Battle Festival.[181][182]
  • Leesburg: Memorial fountain made of rustic limestone, in Lone Oak Cemetery. Erected 1935 by United Daughters of the Confederacy but dedicated to soldiers of all wars. An adjacent 20-foot flagpole and inscribed granite block dedicated to Civil War veterans buried there was erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 2005.[147]
  • Ormond Beach: 2011; Pilgrim's Rest Cemetery. Monument consists of a flagpole and a concrete base with an attached bronze Southern Cross of Honor and a granite slab listing the names of Confederate veterans buried there. Erected by Confederate Sons Association of Florida.[147]
  • Oxford: Upright granite slab monument in Pine Level Cemetery, listing the names of Confederate veterans buried in the cemetery. Erected 2007 by Sons of Confederate Veterans.[147]
  • White Springs: Confederate monument and large flag, along Interstate 75 (2002)[183]

Inhabited places

Counties

  • Baker County (1861), named for James McNair Baker, a lawyer and judge who was a Confederate States of America Senator from Florida.[184]
  • Bradford County (1861), named for Captain Richard Bradford, who was killed in the Battle of Santa Rosa Island, becoming the first Confederate officer from Florida to die during the Civil War.[184]
  • Hendry County (1923), named for Francis Asbury Hendry, a Confederate Captain and one of the first settlers in the area.[184]
  • Lee County (1887), named for Robert E. Lee.[185]
  • Levy County (1845), named for David Levy Yulee, a Florida businessman, senator, and strong supporter of slavery, who withdrew from the U.S. Senate in 1861 and served nine months in prison after the Civil War for supporting the Confederacy.
  • Pasco County (1887), named for Samuel Pasco, who fought for the CSA but spent much of the war as a prisoner of war. Pasco later became a state representative and US Senator from Florida.

Municipalities

Parks

Roads

Schools and libraries

  • Gainesville:
    • J.J. Finley Elementary School (1939), named for CSA Brig. Gen. Jesse J. Finley.[199]
    • Kirby-Smith Center (1939), Alachua County Public Schools administrative offices. Constructed in 1900, the building was initially the all white Gainesville Graded & High School.[200] In August 2017, the school board announced plans to rename the center.[201]
    • Sidney Lanier School. Lanier was a Confederate soldier and poet.
  • Hillsborough County: Robert E. Lee Elementary School aka Lee Elementary Magnet School of World Studies and Technology was built 1906 and named for Lee in 1943. A school board member pushing for a rename in 2017 noted that had Lee's army won the war "a majority of our students would be slaves."[202]
  • Jacksonville[203]
  • Orlando: Robert E. Lee Middle School, renamed College Park Middle School in 2017.[204]
  • Pensacola: Escambia High School's Rebel mascot riots, 1972–1977. Before a noncontroversial name was chosen, protests and violence occurred at the school and in the community, crosses were burned on school district members' lawns, lawsuits were filed, and the Ku Klux Klan held a rally and petitioned the school board.
  • Tampa: Lee Elementary School of Technology / World Studies (1906). The school's mascot is Robert E. Lee's horse Traveller. In July 2015, students asked the school board to change the school's name.[205] In June 2017, a board member asked the board to consider the name change.[206]

City symbols

  • Panama City: city flag is quite similar to the Florida state flag with a white background and the St Andrews cross echoing the Confederate Battle Flag, but with the city seal replacing the state seal.

City holiday

  • On April 2, 2019, Ocala mayor Kent Guinn signed a declaration declaring that April 26, 2019 would be Confederate Memorial Day. He said he has done so in previous years.[207]

County holiday

  • In 2016, the Commission of Marion County (county seat Ocala) declared April as Confederate History Month.[146]

Georgia

As of June 24, 2020, there are at least 201 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Georgia.[75]

Hawaii

Idaho

As of June 24, 2020, there are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Idaho.[75]

The settlement of Idaho coincided with the Civil War and settlers from Southern states memorialized the Confederacy with the names of several towns and natural features.[208][209][210]

Inhabited places

  • Atlanta: unincorporated, and its Atlanta Airport. The area was named by Southerners after reports of a Confederate victory over Gen. Sherman in the Battle of Atlanta, which turned to be wholly false, but the name stuck.
  • Confederate Gulch: unincorporated former mining community.[211][210]
  • Grayback Gulch: unincorporated former mining community, settled by Confederate soldiers and named for the color of their uniforms. Now a U.S. Forest Service campground.[212]
  • Leesburg: an unincorporated former goldmining town settled by southerners and named for Robert E. Lee.[213]

Natural features and recreation

Chattanooga Hot Springs, near Atlanta, ID [216]

Illinois

Confederate Monument at Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago

The four memorials in Illinois are in Federal cemeteries and connected with prisoners of war.

Federal cemeteries

Federal plot within private cemetery

Indiana

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Indiana.[75]

Confederate monument, Crown Hill National Cemetery, Indianapolis

Iowa

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Iowa.[75]

Kansas

Veterans Memorial Park in Wichita, Kansas holds one Confederate and Union monument, a Reconciliation Memorial. "The intent of this memorial is to bring folks together and reconcile their differences," [1]. The Memorial is a small obelisk with text honoring North and South combatants on both sides. See Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials#Kansas for monuments which have been removed.

Kentucky

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 37 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Kentucky.[75]

Monuments

Confederate Monument, Georgetown
Confederate Monument, Spring Hill Cemetery, Harrodsburg
John B. Castleman Monument, Louisville
Lloyd Tilghman Statue, Paducah

Bridge

Inhabited places

Parks

Roads

Highways

Schools

Louisiana

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 83 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Louisiana.[75]

State capitol

  • Gov. Francis T. Nicholls Statue (1934). Nicholls was a Brigadier General in the Confederate Army.
  • Gov. Henry Watkins Allen Statue (1934). Allen was a Brigadier General in the Confederate Army. He is buried on the Old Louisiana State Capitol grounds.
  • "Silent Sentinel" Monument, officially the Confederate Soldiers of East and West Baton Rouge Parishes Memorial. Plinth erected 1886 and statue in 1890. Dedicated by Gov. John McEnery. Original granite and marble plinth cracked; replaced in the 1960s with a small brick plinth that was aesthetically unappealing. Formerly at North Boulevard and 3rd Street, near City Hall. In 2012, to make room for Town Square construction, it was moved to the nearby Old Louisiana State Capitol, now a museum.[262] Plaque reads: "Erected by the men and women of East and West Baton Rouge to perpetuate the heroism and patriotic devotion of the noble soldiers from the two parishes who wore the gray and crossed the river with their immortal leaders to rest under the shade of the trees. Original monument erected 1886 A.D."

Buildings

Confederate Memorial Hall in New Orleans

Monuments

Courthouse monuments

Other public monuments

Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans
Army of Tennessee Tomb, Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans
Charles Didier Dreux statue in New Orleans

Inhabited places

Parks

Roads

  • Baton Rouge:
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Lee Drive[75]
  • Bell City: Jeff Davis Road
  • Bogalusa: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Bossier City:
    • General Bragg Drive
    • General Ewell Drive
    • General Polk Drive
    • General Sterling Price Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Kirby Smith Drive
    • Longstreet Place
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Robert E. Lee Street
  • Chalmette: Beauregard Street
  • Gretna: Beauregard Drive
  • Houma: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Lafayette: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Lake Charles:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Beauregard Street
  • Merryville: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Monroe: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • New Orleans:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Dreux Avenue, named for Confederate General Charles Didier Dreux
    • Gayarre Place, named for Charles Gayarré, white supremacist and financial supporter of the Confederacy. Clio, muse or goddess of history, is on a monument. (Gayarré was a historian.) The monument was paid for by George Hacker Dunbar, an artilleryman during the Civil War, married to a niece of General Beauregard. The original statue was replaced in 1938, after vandals damaged it.[277]
    • Governor Nicholls Street
    • Jefferson Davis Parkway. Originally named Hagan Avenue; name changed in 1911 to coincide with the unveiling of the Jefferson Davis Monument.[275]
    • Lee Circle[75]
    • Polk Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Slidell Street
  • Pineville:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Longstreet Drive
  • Rayne: Jeff Davis Avenue

Schools

Confederate flag display

Maryland

The Confederate Soldier, Loudon Park National Cemetery, Baltimore

As of June 27, 2020, there are at least three public homages to the Confederacy in Maryland.[75]

State symbols

Flag of Maryland since 1904

Monuments

Public monuments

Talbot Boys, Easton

Private monuments

Monument to the Unknown Confederate Soldiers, Frederick, Maryland
  • White's Ferry, Montgomery County: Confederate Monument, a granite pedestal.
    The base of the CSA monument moved from Rockville, MD, to White's Ferry, MD.

The original monument, a bronze life-sized Confederate soldier on this pedestal, was originally donated by the UDC and the United Confederate Veterans, and built by the Washington firm of Falvey Granite Company at a cost of US$3,600 (equivalent to $93,127 in 2019). The artist is unknown.[300] The inscription says "To Our Heroes of Montgomery Co. Maryland That We Through Life May Not Forget to Love The Thin Gray Line / Erected A.D. 1913 / 1861 CSA 1865."[301] because Confederate uniforms are gray. The Rockville dedication was on June 3, 1913, Jefferson Davis's birthday,[301] and was attended by 3,000 out of a county population of 30,000.[302] It was originally located in a small triangular park[303] called Courthouse Square. In 1971, urban renewal led to the elimination of the Square, and the monument was moved to the east lawn of the Red Brick Courthouse (no longer in use as such), facing south.[304] In 1994 it was cleaned and waxed by the Maryland Military Monuments Commission.[300] The monument was defaced with "Black Lives Matter" in 2015; a wooden box was built over it to protect it.[305] The monument was removed in July 2017 from its original location outside the Old Rockville Court House to private land[303] at White's Ferry in Dickerson, Maryland.[306][307] The statue was removed from the pedestal in June 2020, but the pedestal urging people to "Love The Thin Gray Line" remains.

Inhabited places

Roads

Ferry

Gen. Jubal A. Early
The renamed White's Ferry ferryboat

Gallery

Massachusetts

As of May 2019, all public memorials listed by the Southern Poverty Law Center[75] had been removed.[311]

Private memorials

  • Cambridge
    • Memorial Hall, Harvard University. Stained-glass windows to commemorate various figures, among them:
      • Honor and Peace Window (1900). There is no inscription, but a Harvard University page ([2]) explaining the windows says: "This window commemorates those who surrendered their lives in the War of the Rebellion." Portrays two warriors, one with sword high in triumph, one kneeling in defeat, who from the ribbons can be seen to be from different but related countries.
      • Student and Soldier Window (1889). Soldier wears gray uniform.

Michigan

As of June 29, 2020, there is at least one known public monument of a confederate soldier in Michigan. It is located in Allendale, Michigan a town in Ottawa County. A part of the Veterans Garden of Honor (1998) which features nine life sized statues of soldiers from various wars, the statue in question depicts a union soldier and a confederate soldier back to back with a young slave at their feet holding a plaque reading "Freedom to Slaves," and the date January 5, 1863.[312]

Mississippi

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 147 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Mississippi.[75]

Missouri

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 19 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Missouri.[75]

Monuments

Courthouse monuments

Statue of David Rice Atchison in front of the Clinton County Courthouse, Plattsburg, Missouri

Other public monuments

UDC monument at Forest Hill and Calvary Cemetery, Kansas City, Missouri
Union Confederate Monument, Kansas City, Missouri

Inhabited places

Parks

Roads

Schools

Montana

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 2 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Montana.[75]

Nevada

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Nevada.[75]

New Jersey

Confederate Monument (1910), Finn's Point National Cemetery.

There is at least one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in New Jersey.[75]

New Mexico

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in New Mexico.[75]

New York

Confederate Monument, Woodlawn National Cemetery, Elmira, New York

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 3 public spaces with Confederate monuments in New York.[75][332]

Monuments

Public monuments

  • Central Park: J. Marion Sims. In November 2017, the cover of Harper’s Magazine featured J. C. Hallman’s article “Monumental Error,” about the Central Park monument of controversial surgeon – and Confederate spy – J. Marion Sims.[333] The timing coincided with the work New York City Mayor Bill De Blasio’s committee on monuments, and Hallman’s article was distributed to members of New York’s Public Design Commission. The commission voted unanimously to remove Sims’s statue, and it was removed in April 2018.[334] Hallman has since written articles about Sims’s statue in Montgomery, Alabama, and is working on a book, The Anarcha Quest, about Sims and his so-called “first cure,” Anarcha Westcott.[335]

Private monuments

Roads

Governor Andrew Cuomo has twice requested the Army, unsuccessfully, to have these streets renamed.[340]

North Carolina

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 164 public spaces with Confederate monuments in North Carolina.[75]

Ohio

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 5 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Ohio.[75]

Historical marker

Monuments

Confederate Soldier Memorial, Camp Chase, Columbus
The Lookout (1910), Johnson's Island, Ottawa County[344]

Roads

  • Milford:
    • Beauregard Court, memorializing CSA Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard
    • Jeb Stuart Drive, memorializing CSA Gen. J. E. B. Stuart.
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive, memorializing CSA Gen. Stonewall Jackson.
    • Colonel Mosby Drive, memorializing CSA Col. John S. Mosby.
    • Monassas Run Road, memorializing the CSA victory at the battle at Manassas, known to the North as Bull Run.

Schools

  • Cleveland: John Adams High School uses the Rebels team name, but the mascot more closely resembles a cavalier than a Confederate soldier.[349]
  • Mcconnelsville: Morgan High School is named for Confederate General John Hunt Morgan. Their nickname is the "Raiders".
  • Willoughby: Willoughby South High School dropped its Confederate uniformed mascot and removed all remaining Confederate imagery from the school while retaining the Rebels team name and school colors grey and blue. In 1993 the school dropped Stars and Bars as the school song and removed Confederate imagery from school uniforms.[349]

Oklahoma

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 13 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oklahoma.[75]

Buildings

  • Ardmore: Oklahoma Confederate Home, operated as OK Confederate Home from 1911 to 1942. Renamed Oklahoma Veterans Center after last residing confederate veteran passed.[350][351]

Monuments

Stand Watie Monument, Polson Cemetery, Delaware County
Confederate Monument at Cherokee National Capitol

Schools

Robert E. Lee School in Durant, Oklahoma

Inhabited places

Roads

  • Jay: Stand Watie Road

Oregon

As of 24 June 2020, there are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oregon.[75]

Pennsylvania

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 3 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Pennsylvania.[75]

Monuments

Virginia State Monument (1917), Gettysburg Battlefield.
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery.

Roads

  • Gettysburg: Confederate Avenue
  • McConnellsburg: Confederate Lane

Rhode Island

As of 24 June 2020, there are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Rhode Island.[75]

South Carolina

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 194 public spaces with Confederate monuments in South Carolina.[75]

South Dakota

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in South Dakota.[75]

  • Gettysburg: The Gettysburg police uniforms feature a patch with overlapping U.S. and Confederate flags and a civil-war era cannon along with the city's name, in a nod to the city's namesake, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, site of the famous Battle of Gettysburg.[363] The historical reference logo for the police emblem and uniform patch was designed in 2009.[364][75]

Tennessee

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 105 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Tennessee.[75] The Tennessee Heritage Protection Act (2016) and a 2013 law restrict the removal of statues and memorials.[35]

The Tennessee legislature designated Confederate Decoration Day, the origin of Memorial Day, as June 3, and in 1969[365] designated January 19 and July 13, their birthdays, as Robert E. Lee Day and Nathan Bedford Forrest day respectively.

State capitol

  • Nathan Bedford Forrest Bust. On display in the Capital rotunda since 1978. Former governor Bill Haslam wished to remove it, but he was not supported by the Legislature or the Capitol Commission. "In 2010, the state moved the Forrest bust from outside the doors of the House of Representatives' chamber to its current location between the legislature's two chambers. It was relocated in order to make room for a bust of Sampson Keeble, Tennessee's first black legislator."[366] In January 2019 a group of students demonstrated at the capital, calling for its removal.[367]

Buildings

  • Greeneville: General Morgan Inn, located at the spot where Confederate general John Hunt Morgan was killed.
  • Murfreesboro: Forrest Hall at Middle Tennessee State University. The Tennessee Board of Regents has unanimously recommended the name change, on the recommendation of a campus task force, and the university president, but it has yet to pass the Tennessee Historical Commission, which plans "public hearings."[368][369]

Monuments

Courthouse monuments

Tipton County Courthouse, Covington
Confederate Monument "Chip", Franklin
Confederate Women monument, Nashville

Other public monuments

Pyramid of cannonballs commemorate Patrick Cleburne in Franklin, Tennessee
  • Franklin: Confederal "Funeral Rest" Memorial, Rose Hill Cemetery[370]
  • Gallatin: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903)
  • Hamilton County: Chickamauga & Chattanooga National Military Park. Numerous monuments and memorials to Confederate soldiers and units, as well as Union monuments.
  • Humboldt: Confederate Monument (1900), Bailey Park
  • Knoxville:
    • A stone monument was erected in 1914 by the United Daughters of the Confederacy at the corner of 17th Street and Laurel Avenue, in the Fort Sanders neighborhood, defaced in August 2017.[380]
    • Civil War Memorial (1901), Knoxville National Cemetery
    • Monument to the Confederate dead (1892), Bethel Avenue[370]
    • Historical marker, with Confederate flag, in front of Immaculate Conception Church, for Father Abram Ryan, called "Poet of the Confederacy".
  • Lebanon:
    • Confederate Memorial Gen. Hatton Statue (1912)
    • Rutherford County: grounds around the County Courthouse contain a 1901 monument to the Confederacy and a 2011 memorial to those from the County who served in the Army of Tennessee.
  • Lynchburg: Confederate Veterans Memorial, Moore County Public Square[370]
  • Memphis:
    • Monument to Captain J. Harvey Mathes, 37th Tennessee CSA[381]
    • Confederate Memorial (1878), Elmwood Cemetery, 824 Dudley Street[370]
  • Mount Pleasant: Confederate Monument (1907)
  • Mulberry: Confederate Memorial (1909)
  • Murfreesboro: Confederate Circle in Evergreen Cemetery was established in 1891 as a memorial to approximately 2,000 Confederate soldiers whose remains were reinterred there.
  • Nashville:
  • Obion: Obion Veterans Memorial, honoring those who were killed in service and were MIA-POW in Civil War, World Wars I & II, Korea, Vietnam, Desert Storm, Afghanistan and Iraq (2006)[370]
  • Parkers Crossroads:
    • Freeman's Battery (2002)
    • Morton's Battery (2007)
  • Pulaski:
  • Santa Fe: Memorial plaque to Maury [County] Light Artillery (Confederate), public square.[370]
  • Tazewell: Confederate memorial (2000) honoring unknown Confederate dead; located in Irish Memorial Cemetery.[370]
  • Trimble: Cemetery Ridge Memorial Plaza, honoring Merion Spence Parks and Williams Hamilton Parks II, members of UDC and SCV respectively (2012)[370]
  • Union City
    • Confederate Monument, Kiwanis Park (1909)
    • Confederate Monument to Unknown Soldiers, Old Soldiers' Cemetery, Summer Street at Edwards Street (1869)[370]
  • Winchester
    • UDC Memorial to Confederate soldiers (1950), City Cemetery
    • SCV Memorial to Confederate soldiers (2003), Confederate Cemetery, adjoining the City Cemetery"[370]
  • Woodbury: 1926 monument "honors all confederate soldiers and marks the spot where CSA Lt. Col. John B. Hutchenson was killed."[370]

Private monuments

  • Nashville
    • Nathan Bedford Forrest Statue, made of fiberglass over foam, 25 feet high, on private land[385] near Interstate 65, installed in 1998, built with private money. It is surrounded by Confederate battle flags, constituting what the owner calls "Confederate Flag Park." (No government recognizes it as a park, and the entrance is chained shut with a "No Trespassing" sign.) The giant statue is visible from the highway to anyone entering the city from the south.[386] It has been called "hideous"[386] and "ridiculous."[387] There have been numerous calls for its removal. Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam said: "It's not a statue that I like and [ sic ] that most Tennesseans are proud of in any way."[388] Former Nashville Mayor Megan Barry called the statue "an offensive display of hatred."[388] In 2015, Nashville's Metro Council voted to petition the Tennessee Department of Transportation to plant obscuring vegetation;[389] the Department declined, because it is private land.[386] ("Never mind that the T.D.O.T. itself removed the obscuring vegetation back in 1998, when the statue was first erected."[386][388]) There has been occasional vandalism; in December 2017 it was covered in "pussy-hat pink" paint,[386] which Bill Dorris, current owner of the land, says he intends to leave.[390] He also said that if trees are planted to block the view from I-65, he "would make the statue taller."[385] It was sculpted, at no charge, by notorious racist Jack Kershaw, an attorney for Martin Luther King's murderer, famous for having said "Somebody needs to say a good word for slavery."[391][392]

Inhabited place

Parks

Roads

  • Brentwood
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Culleoka: General Lee Road
  • Dandridge
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Elizabethton: Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Eva: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Forest Hills: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Franklin:
    • General J.B. Hood Drive
    • General Nathan Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Gallatin: Robert Lee Drive
  • Nashville:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Confederate Drive
    • General Forrest Court
    • Robert E. Lee Court
    • Robert E. Lee Drives (two different streets with the same name)
  • Newport
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Driv
  • Oak Hill: Stonewall Jackson Court
  • Pulaski
    • Sam Davis Avenue
    • Sam Davis Trail
  • Sardis: Jeff Davis Lane
  • Smyrna
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Lee Lane[75]
    • Longstreet Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
    • Sam Davis Road
    • Stonewall Drive

Schools

  • Chapel Hill: Forrest High School
  • Nashville: Father Ryan High School, named for Abram Ryan, called "Poet of the Confederacy".
  • Paris: Robert E. Lee School
  • Sewanee: The University of the South: "Nowhere is the issue of Confederate remembrance more nettlesome than at Sewanee, whose origin[s] are entwined with the antebellum South and the Confederacy."[393] Confederate flags are in stained glass windows of the chapel, as is the Seal of the Confederacy.[393] It benefited greatly at its founding by a large gift from John Armfield, at one time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, the largest and most prosperous slave trading enterprise in the country. Students as late as 1871 were required to wear uniforms of "cadet gray cloth".[394] Confederate flags hung in the chapel from its dedication in 1909 until the mid-1990s when they were removed "reportedly to improve acoustics".[395] There is an official portrait hanging at the University of Bishop Leonidas Polk, "an ardent defender of slavery,"[393] who was in charge of the celebration of the cornerstone laying in 1857, and said the new university will "materially aid the South to resist and repel a fanatical domination which seeks to rule over us."[396] He resigned his ecclesiastical position to become a major general in the Confederate army (called "Sewanee's Fighting Bishop"), and died in battle in 1864. His official portrait at the University depicts him dressed as a bishop with his army uniform hanging nearby. However, his portrait was moved from Convocation Hall to Archives and Special Collections in 2015.[397] The Confederate flag was also emblazoned on the university mace that led processions marking the beginning and ending of the term from 1965 until 1997. At a special chapel service to celebrate Jefferson Davis' birthday, the Ceremonial Mace was consecrated to the memory of Nathan Bedford Forrest, the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, by Bishop Charles C. J. Carpenter of Alabama – one of the clergy who opposed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s activities in Birmingham in 1963 (see A Call for Unity), prompting King to write his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in response.[395]
  • Tullahoma: Robert E. Lee Elementary (1964)
Calhoun Hall, named for slave owner and Confederate supporter W. H. Calhoun.

Tourist sites

  • Pigeon Forge: "Rebel Railroad" was a small theme park built in 1961, its main attraction being a simulated Confederate steam train which afforded "'good Confederate citizens' the opportunity to ride a five mile train route through 'hostile' territory and to help repel a Yankee assault on the train". Rebel Railroad was purchased in 1970 by Art Modell, owner of the Cleveland Browns.[409][410][411] In 2018 it is operating under the name Dollywood.
  • Morristown, General Longstreet Headquarters Museum[412]

Texas

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 205 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Texas.[75][413] "Nowhere has the national re-examination of Confederate emblems been more riven with controversy than the Lone Star State."[414]

State capitol

  • "The Texas Capitol itself is a Confederate monument," according to then-Land Commissioner Jerry E. Patterson.[415] The Texas Confederate Museum was once housed in the Capitol.
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903) features four bronze figures representing the Confederate artillery, cavalry, infantry, and navy. A bronze statue of Jefferson Davis stands above them.[416] The inscription reads: "Died for state rights guaranteed under the constitution. The people of the South, animated by the spirit of 1776, to preserve their rights, withdrew from the federal compact in 1861. The North resorted to coercion. The South, against overwhelming numbers and resources, fought until exhausted."[417]
    • Hood's Texas Brigade, a monument "to memorialize those [who] fought for the Confederacy".[418] "The monument includes a depiction of a Confederate soldier, quotes by Confederate leaders, a flag of the Confederacy and the Confederate battle flag."[419] These are the only Confederate flags currently (2017) visible in the Capitol.[420] Representative Eric Johnson has called for its removal.[419]
    • Terry's Texas Rangers Monument, a monument "to memorialize those [who] fought for the Confederacy"[418] (1907).

State symbols

  • The reverse side of the Seal of Texas (1992) includes "the unfurled flags of the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, the United Mexican States, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America". The Confederate flag is rendered as the Stars and Bars.

State holiday

  • Confederate Heroes Day is celebrated on January 19. State employees have the day off.
  • April is Confederate History Month in Texas.[421]

Buildings

Monuments

Many monuments were donated by pro-Confederacy groups like Daughters of the Confederacy. County governments at the time voted to accept the gifts and take ownership of the statues.[422][423]

Courthouse monuments

  • Alpine: Confederate Colonel Henry Percy Brewster (1963)[424]
  • Aspermont: Historical marker, "County Named for Confederate Hero Stonewall Jackson", Stonewall County Courthouse (1963)
  • Bastrop: Monuments at Bastrop County Courthouse include:
    • Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1910)[425]
    • Historical marker, "Home Town of Texas Confederate Major Joseph D. Sayers" (1963)[426]
  • Bay City: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1913), Matagorda County Courthouse[427][428]
  • Belton: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Bell County Courthouse[429]
  • Bonham: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1905), Fannin County Courthouse[430]
  • Bryan: Commemorative marker, erected 1965, to the Brazos County Confederate Commissioners Court.[431]
  • Comanche: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (2002), Comanche County Courthouse[432]
  • Corsicana: Call to Arms (Confederate Soldiers' Monument), by Louis Amateis (1907), Navarro County Courthouse.[433][434] A Civil War bugler stands in uniform holding a bugle to his mouth with his proper right hand. He holds a sword in his proper left hand at his side. He wears a hat with a feather in it and knee-high boots. A bedroll is slung over his proper left shoulder and strapped across his chest and proper right hip. The sculpture is mounted on a rectangular base.[435] "Isaac O'Haver was a member of Co K of the 17th VA Cavalry. He was a 17 year-old bugler for his unit. He was born Sep. 20, 1844 and died at the age of 27 on March 30, 1872. He is buried at the Ladoga Cemetery."[436] The plaques on the monument read:
    • South side: The Call to Arms Erected 1907 by Navarro chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy To commemorate the valor and heroism of our Confederate Soldiers It is not in the power of mortals to command success The Confederate Soldier did more - he deserved it. "But their fame on brightest pages penned by poets and by pages Shall go sounding down the ages"
    • West side: "Nor shall your glory be fought while fame her record keeps or honor points the hollowed spot where valor proudly sleeps" "Tell it as you may It never can be told Sing it as you Will It never can be sung The Story of the Glory of the men who wore the gray"
    • East side: "It is a duty we owe the dead who died for us: - But where memories can never die - It is a duty we owe to posterity to see that our children shall know the virtues And rise worthy of their sires".
    • North side: The soldiers of the Southern Confederacy fought valiantly for The liberty of state bequeathed them By their forefathers of 1776 "Who Glorified Their righteous cause and they who made The sacrifice supreme in That they died To keep their country free"[435]
  • Clarksville: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Red River County County Courthouse[437]
  • Denton: Denton Confederate Soldier Monument, Denton County Courthouse.[438] Cost $2,000; a project of the Denton Chapter, UDC. Dedicated June 3, 1918, Jefferson Davis's birthday.[439] It had "whites only" drinking fountains on each side.[440] In 2015 it was defaced with the words "THIS IS RACIST" in red paint.[441] The twenty-year campaign of a Denton resident, Willie Hudspeth, to have the monument removed was the subject of a Vice news video in 2018.[440] After the wave of Confederate monument removals that followed the 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, and in large part as a result of Hudspeth's campaign, a county 15-person Confederate Memorial Committee met for three months in 2017–18 and recommended "adding context" — two video kiosks and a large plaque, "with interviews about local veterans and the history of slavery"[442] — to the monument rather than removing it, a suggestion accepted unanimously by the county commissioners. Once the nature of the historical context has been determined, approval of the Texas Historical Commission will be required.[443] As of September, 2018, "the county still does not have a timeline for completing the project and...there were no updates to report".[444] The video caught the attention of Kali Holloway, director of the Make It Right Project, which is working to remove Confederate monuments. She added the Denton monument to the group's "top 10 list" of monuments they consider priorities.[222][444] The statue was removed in June 2020. [445]
  • Fort Worth: Monument to "Confederate Soldiers and their Descendents" (1953), Tarrant County Courthouse[446]
Dignified Resignation in Galveston, Texas
  • Galveston: Dignified Resignation (1909) by Louis Amateis at the Galveston County Courthouse. With his back turned to the US flag while carrying a Confederate flag, it is the only memorial in Texas to feature a Confederate sailor.[447][448] It was "erected to the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate States of America." An inscription on the plaque reads, "there has never been an armed force which in purity of motives intensity of courage and heroism has equaled the army and navy of the Confederate States of America."[417]
  • Gainesville: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Cooke County Courthouse (1911)[449][450]

Other public monuments

Confederate Memorial Plaza in Anderson, Texas
Confederate Monument, Beaumont
  • Alpine: CSA Gen. Lawrence "Sul" Ross Monument (1963)
  • Amarillo: Confederate Soldier Statue (1931)[447]
  • Anderson: Confederate Memorial Plaza (2010).[480] The plaza beside the Grimes County courthouse flies a Confederate flag behind a gate with metal lettering reading "Confederate Memorial Plaza." A metal statue depicts one of several Grimes County residents who fought with the 4th Texas volunteer infantry brigade in Virginia.[417]
  • Athens: Henderson County Confederate Monument (1964)
  • Austin:
    • Hood's Texas Brigade Monument, Texas State Capitol
    • Littlefield Fountain, University of Texas, commemorates George W. Littlefield, a university regent and CSA officer. An inscription reads, "To the men and women of the Confederacy who fought with valor and suffered with fortitude that states [sic] rights be maintained."
    • Texas Confederate Women's and Men's Historical Markers, at 3710 Cedar St. and 1600 W. Sixth, commemorate campgrounds built to house and care for widows, wives, and veterans of the Confederacy.[418]
  • Beaumont: "Our Confederate Soldiers" Monument (1912)
  • Clarksville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1912)
  • Cleburne: Cleburne Monument (2015) Confederate Arch (1922)
  • Coleman: Hometown of Texas CSA Col. James E. McCord Monument (1963)
  • College Station: A statue of Lawrence Sullivan Ross, Confederate general and former president of A&M University is located on the campus of Texas A&M University. In August 2017 the Chancellor of the university, John Sharp, confirmed that the university will not be removing the statue from the campus.[481]
  • Corpus Christi: Queen of the Sea (1914; restored 1990), bas-relief by Pompeo Coppini; UDC-sponsored Confederate memorial featuring an allegorical female figure – representing Corpus Christie – holding keys of success while receiving blessings from Mother Earth and Father Neptune, who are standing next to her.[447] "Coppini was abhorrent of war", and in Queen of the Sea "he crafted a sculpture that symbolized peace and captured the spirit of Corpus Christi".[482]
  • El Paso:
    • Hometown of Texas CSA Capt. James W. Magoffin Monument (1964)
    • CSA Maj. Simeon Hart Monument (1964)
  • Farmersville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1917), Farmersville City Park[483]
  • Fort Worth: Confederate Soldier Memorial (1939), Oakwood Cemetery[447]
  • Gainesville Confederate Heroes Statue (1908) in Leonard Park[484][485]
  • Gonzales: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Confederate Square. Dedicated on June 3, 1909. To "our Confederate dead."[486][487]
  • Greenville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1926)
  • Holliday: Stonewall Jackson Camp 249 Monument (1999)
  • Houston:
  • Kermit: Col. C.M. Winkler Monument (1963)
  • Marshall:
    • Confederate Capitol of Missouri Monument (1963)
    • Confederate Monument (1906)
    • Home of Last Texas Confederate Gov. Pendleton Murrah Monument (1963)
  • Miami: Col. O.M. Roberts Monument (1963)
John H. Reagan Memorial in Palestine, Texas. The allegorical figure seated beneath Reagan represents the Lost Cause of the Confederacy.[447]

Private monuments

Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza, Palestine, Texas
  • Austin: Confederate monument, Oakwood Cemetery. Erected in 2016 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans.[490]
  • Belton: Monument to Confederate Sargeant Jacob Hemphill. Erected 2016 by Sons of Confederate Veterans.[491]
  • Crowley: "Confederate Veterans Memorial Monument honoring The Confederate Veterans of Crowley and the surrounding area interred at the Crowley Cemetery." Erected 2011 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans.[491]
  • Hempstead: The Liendo Plantation was a center for Confederate recruiting efforts and held Union prisoners during the war. Now it holds battle reenactments and demonstrations of Civil War era Confederate life at its annual Civil War Weekend.
  • Orange: The Confederate Memorial of the Wind, located on Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, but visible from I-10, has been under construction since 2013, and will be the largest Confederate monument built since 1916, according to the Sons of Confederate Veterans.[414] A center stone ring is held aloft by 13 pillars, one for each state that seceded. There are twenty commemorative flagpoles.
  • Palestine: Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza (2013), funded by the Sons of the Confederate Veterans[492]

Inhabited places

Counties

Municipalities

Museums

Parks

  • Confederate Reunion Grounds State Historic Site, Limestone County, near Mexia, Texas
  • Davis Mountains State Park (1938) named for the mountain range
  • Davis Mountains (geographic feature in West Texas around and named for Fort Davis)
  • Fort Worth: Jefferson Davis Park.[497]
  • Holliday: Stonewall Jackson Campground
  • Lakeside, Tarrant County: Confederate Park. The two Confederate flags displayed on each side of the park's marker were removed by the Texas Department of Public Transportation in 2017. Marker text:

    Site of Confederate Park // Local businessman Khleber M. Van Zandt organized the Robert E. Lee Camp of the United Confederate Veterans in 1889. By 1900 it boasted more than 700 members. The Club received a 25-year charter to create the Confederate Park Association in 1901, then purchased 373 acres (151 ha) near this site for the "recreation, refuge and relief of Confederate soldiers" and their families. Opening events included a picnic for veterans and families on June 20, 1902, and a statewide reunion September 8–12, 1902, with 3,500 attendees. The park thrived as a center for the civil and social activities on Texas Confederate organizations. By 1924 the numbers [ sic ] of surviving veterans had greatly diminished, and the Confederate Park Association dissolved when its charter expired in 1926.

    [497]
  • Palestine: John H. Reagan Park

Roads

  • Austin:
    • In July, 2018, at approximately the same time that Robert E. Lee Road and Jeff Davis Avenue were renamed, the city's Equity Office recommended changing the names of seven more streets:
  • Conroe:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jubal Early Lane
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • El Paso: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Hamilton: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Hillsboro: Confederate Drive
  • Hemphill:
    • Confederate Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Holliday: Stonewall Road
  • Houston:
    • Robert E. Lee Road
    • Robert Lee Road
    • Sul Ross St, Named for Lawrence Sullivan Ross, Confederate general and former president of Texas A&M University.
    • Tuam Street, a major artery named for CSA Gen. Dowling's birthplace, Tuam, Ireland.
  • Hunt: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Jacksonville: Jeff Davis Street
  • Kermit East Winkler Street
  • Lakeside Confederate Park Road
  • League City: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Levelland: Robert Lee Street
  • Liberty: Confederate Street
  • Livingston: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Marshall:
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Missouri City
    • Beauregard Court
    • Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Breckinridge Court
    • Confederate Drive
    • Pickett Place
  • Richmond:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Ridgley: Bedford Forrest Lane
  • Roma: Robert Lee Avenue
  • San Antonio:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Sterling City: Robert Lee Highway
  • Sweetwater: Robert Lee Street
  • Tyler:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
  • Victoria: Robert E. Lee Road

Note: "There are similarly named streets in towns and cities across east Texas, notably Port Arthur and Beaumont, as well as memorials to Dowling and the Davis Guards, not least at Sabine Pass, where the battleground is now preserved as a state park"

Schools