기부금에 따른 미국의 대학 목록 - List of colleges and universities in the United States by endowment

하버드 대학의 아넨 베르크 홀 . 하버드는 세계에서 가장 큰 기부금을 보유하고 있습니다.

다음은 NACUBO (National Association of College and University Business Officers)에 따르면 기부금 이 10 억 달러 이상인 미국 고등 교육 기관 목록입니다 . [1] [2]

2005 년 아래의 기부금 표는 총 2 억 1,370 억 달러입니다. 2015 년까지 총액은 39496 억 달러로 80 % 증가했습니다. 총액은 2018 년에 $ 479.23 억으로 추가로 증가했습니다.

향상 및 부과금

아래 표로 작성된 데이터는 NACUBO에서 가져온 것입니다. 일부 대학은 직접 통제하지 않지만 그럼에도 불구하고 하나 또는 여러 기관의 복지에 전념하는 기부금의 혜택을받습니다. 예를 들면 The Duke Endowment , Robert A. Welch Foundation , Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust가 있습니다.

2017 년에는 등록금을 납부하는 학생이 500 명 이상이고 순자산이 학생당 최소 $ 500,000 인 기관에 대해 1.4 %의 소비세 형태 로 2017 년 세금 감면 및 일자리 법에 연방 기부 세가 제정되었습니다 . $ 500,000은 인플레이션에 맞게 조정되지 않으므로 임계 값은 시간이 지남에 따라 효과적으로 낮아집니다. [3] [4]

감세 및 일자리 법의 기부 세 조항은 교육을 희생하여 기업과 부유층을위한 세금 감면 자금을 지원하는 것으로 비판을 받아 왔습니다. [5] [6] 비평가들은 세금이 저소득층 학생들의 재정 지원을 위협하고 사회적 이동성을 억제하며 생명을 구하는 연구를 방해 할 수 있다고 지적합니다. [6] [7] 세금 폐지를 옹호하는 활발한 노력이 계속되고 있습니다. [8] 의회에서 초당파 공동 후원으로 폐지 법이 도입되었습니다. [9] [10]

NACUBO에 따르면 현재 10 억 달러 이상의 기부금

사립 학교

데이터는 미국 대학 및 대학 경영 책임자 협회 (National Association of College and University Business Officers)에서 매년 수집합니다 ( 소규모 수십억 이 사용됨). [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21]

제도 상태 2019 년
( 수십억 달러 ) [11]
2018 년
(십억 달러) [11]
2017 년
(십억 달러) [22]
2016 년
(십억 달러) [12]
2015 년
(십억 달러) [13]
2014 년
(십억 달러) [14]
2013 년
(십억 달러) [15]
2012 년
(십억 달러) [16]
2011
(십억 달러) [17]
2010
(십억 달러) [18]
2009 년
(십억 달러) [19]
2008
(십억 달러) [20]
2007 년
(십억 달러) [21]
애 머스트 칼리지 엄마 $ 2.473 $ 2.378 $ 2.248 $ 2.031 $ 2.194 $ 2.149 $ 1.823 $ 1.641 $ 1.642 $ 1.386 $ 1.306 $ 1.705 $ 1.662
베일러 대학교 TX $ 1.340 $ 1.313 $ 1.230 $ 1.144 $ 1.168 $ 1.154 $ 1.061 0.964 달러 $ 1.004 $ 0.872 0.880 달러 $ 1.060 $ 1.018
베일러 의과 대학 TX $ 1.301 $ 1.272 $ 1.166 $ 1.064 $ 1.095 $ 1.021 0.873 달러 0.795 달러 0.838 달러 0.799 달러 0.731 달러 $ 1.091 $ 1.278
베레 아 칼리지 KY $ 1.219 $ 1.198 $ 1.150 $ 1.051 $ 1.101 $ 1.137 $ 1.012 0.943 달러 0.979 달러 0.847 달러 0.791 달러 $ 1.023 $ 1.102
보스턴 칼리지 엄마 $ 2.523 $ 2.478 $ 2.317 $ 2.064 $ 2.220 $ 2.131 $ 1.809 $ 1.646 $ 1.726 $ 1.480 $ 1.341 $ 1.631 $ 1.670
보스턴 대학교 엄마 $ 2.304 $ 2.198 $ 1.957 $ 1.655 $ 1.644 $ 1.616 $ 1.369 $ 1.104 $ 1.160 0.992 달러 $ 0.892 $ 1.145 $ 1.101
베리 칼리지 GA $ 1.059
보우도 인 칼리지 나를 $ 1.744 $ 1.628 $ 1.456 $ 1.340 $ 1.393 $ 1.216 $ 1.039 0.902 달러 0.904 달러 0.754 달러 $ 0.688 0.831 달러 0.828 달러
브랜다이스 대학교 엄마 $ 1.074 $ 1.046
브라운 대학교 RI $ 3.977 $ 3.604 $ 3.245 $ 2.964 $ 3.073 $ 3.000 $ 2.669 $ 2.460 $ 2.497 $ 2.155 $ 2.017 $ 2.747 $ 2.781
캘리포니아 공과 대학 CA $ 2.975 $ 2.879 $ 2.607 $ 2.107 $ 2.199 $ 2.094 $ 1.849 $ 1.747 $ 1.772 $ 1.545 $ 1.398 $ 1.892 $ 1.860
카네기 멜론 대학교 아빠 $ 2.543 $ 2.386 $ 2.154 $ 1.709 $ 1.739 $ 1.600 $ 1.371 0.987 달러 $ 1.017 0.815 달러 0.754 달러 $ 1.067 $ 1.116
케이스 웨스턴 리저브 대학 $ 1.867 $ 1.843 $ 1.799 $ 1.663 $ 1.776 $ 1.759 $ 1.678 $ 1.600 $ 1.703 $ 1.462 $ 1.402 $ 1.766 $ 1.841
홀리 크로스 대학 엄마 $ 1.081
컬럼비아 대학교 NY $ 10.951 $ 10.869 $ 9.997 9.041 달러 $ 9.639 $ 9.223 8.197 달러 $ 7.654 $ 7.790 $ 6.517 $ 5.893 $ 7.147 $ 7.150
코넬 대학교 NY $ 7.328 $ 7.230 $ 6.758 $ 5.758 $ 6.038 $ 6.312 $ 5.272 $ 4.947 $ 5.059 $ 4.379 $ 3.966 $ 5.385 $ 5.425
다트머스 대학 NH $ 5.731 $ 5.494 $ 4.956 $ 4.674 $ 4.663 $ 4.468 $ 3.733 $ 3.486 $ 3.413 $ 2.998 $ 2.825 $ 3.660 $ 3.760
듀크 대학교 체크 안함 $ 8.600 $ 8.525 $ 7.911 $ 6.840 $ 7.297 $ 7.037 $ 6.040 $ 5.555 $ 5.747 $ 4.824 $ 4.441 $ 6.124 $ 5.910
에 모리 대학교 GA $ 7.872 $ 7.292 $ 6.905 $ 6.402 $ 6.684 $ 6.681 $ 5.816 $ 5.461 $ 5.400 $ 4.694 $ 4.328 $ 5.473 $ 5.562
조지 워싱턴 대학교 DC $ 1.779 $ 1.799 $ 1.729 $ 1.570 $ 1.616 $ 1.577 $ 1.375 $ 1.306 $ 1.331 $ 1.144 $ 1.011 $ 1.256 $ 1.147
조지 타운 대학교 DC $ 1.822 $ 1.770 $ 1.662 $ 1.484 $ 1.529 $ 1.461 $ 1.286 $ 1.142 $ 1.160 $ 1.010 0.895 달러 $ 1.059 $ 1.059
그린 넬 칼리지 IA $ 2.070 $ 1.992 $ 1.871 $ 1.649 $ 1.788 $ 1.830 $ 1.553 $ 1.384 $ 1.500 $ 1.265 $ 1.076 $ 1.472 $ 1.718
하버드 대학교 엄마 39.428 달러 38.303 달러 36.021 달러 34.542 달러 36.449 달러 35.883 달러 $32.334 $30.435 $31.728 $27.557 $25.662 $36.556 $34.635
Johns Hopkins University MD $6.276 $4.325 $3.845 $3.381 $3.413 $3.452 $2.987 $2.593 $2.598 $2.220 $1.977 $2.525 $2.800
Liberty University VA $1.588 $1.433 $1.291
Lehigh University PA $1.412 $1.353 $1.278 $1.163 $1.213 $1.216 $1.103 $1.036 $1.077 $0.940 $0.886 $1.127 $1.086
Loma Linda University CA $1.077 $1.015
Massachusetts Institute of Technology MA $17.569 $16.529 $14.968 $13.182 $13.475 $12.425 $11.005 $10.150 $9.713 $8.317 $7.982 $10.069 $9.980
Middlebury College VT $1.124 $1.124 $1.074 $1.001 $1.101 $1.082 $0.973 $0.880 $0.908 $0.783 $0.700 $0.885 $0.936
New York University NY $4.346 $4.266 $3.991 $3.488 $3.576 $3.424 $2.949 $2.755 $2.827 $2.370 $2.094 $2.475 $2.162
Northeastern University MA $1.055 $1.015
Northwestern University IL $11.092 $11.088 $10.437 $9.648 $10.193 $9.778 $7.883 $7.119 $7.183 $5.945 $5.445 $7.244 $6.503
Pomona College CA $2.325 $2.274 $2.167 $1.985 $2.099 $2.101 $1.823 $1.680 $1.700 $1.459 $1.334 $1.794 $1.761
Princeton University NJ $26.116 $25.917 $23.812 $22.153 $22.723 $20.996 $18.200 $16.954 $17.110 $14.391 $12.614 $16.349 $15.787
Rice University TX $6.481 $6.278 $5.814 $5.324 $5.557 $5.528 $4.836 $4.419 $4.451 $4.100 $3.613 $4.610 $4.670
Rockefeller University NY $2.293 $2.194 $2.049 $1.927 $1.987 $1.986 $1.772 $1.662 $1.746 $1.561 $1.528 $2.021 $2.144
Saint Louis University MO $1.253 $1.223 $1.147 $1.053 $1.093 $1.077 $0.956 $0.853 $0.880 $0.708 $0.646 $0.880 $0.959
Santa Clara University CA $1.020
Smith College MA $1.913 $1.875 $1.767 $1.627 $1.782 $1.756 $1.557 $1.410 $1.430 $1.244 $1.096 $1.366 $1.361
Southern Methodist University TX $1.664 $1.633 $1.515 $1.384 $1.505 $1.466 $1.268 $1.177 $1.197 $1.069 $1.035 $1.368 $1.328
Stanford University CA $27.700 $26.465 $24.785 $22.398 $22.223 $21.446 $18.668 $17.036 $16.503 $13.851 $12.619 $17.200 $17.165
Swarthmore College PA $2.132 $2.116 $1.956 $1.747 $1.846 $1.877 $1.634 $1.499 $1.508 $1.249 $1.129 $1.413 $1.441
Syracuse University NY $1.393 $1.338 $1.259 $1.157 $1.166 $1.183 $1.121 $0.9401 $0.9137 $0.8492 $0.6756 $1.000 $1.086
Texas Christian University TX $1.709 $1.628 $1.521 $1.436 $1.514 $1.443 $1.256 $1.180 $1.192 $1.048 $0.975 $1.260 $1.187
Trinity University (Texas) TX $1.280 $1.292 $1.194 $1.085 $1.185 $1.180 $1.005 $0.908 $0.963 $0.855 $0.851 $1.034 $0.991
Tufts University MA $1.868 $1.846 $1.739 $1.563 $1.593 $1.590 $1.440 $1.351 $1.404 $1.214 $1.103 $1.446 $1.452
Tulane University LA $1.430 $1.384 $1.288 $1.171 $1.220 $1.184 $1.047 $0.960 $1.014 $0.888 $0.807 $1.035 $1.009
University of Chicago IL $8.264 $7.928 $7.524 $7.001 $7.550 $7.546 $6.668 $6.571 $6.575 $5.543 $5.578 $6.632 $6.204
University of Miami FL $0.997 $ 1.024
노트르담 대학교 $ 11.268 $ 10.728 $ 9.352 8.374 달러 $ 8.567 $ 8.040 $ 6.856 $ 6.330 $ 6.260 $ 5.235 $ 4.795 $ 6.226 $ 5.977
펜실베니아 대학교 아빠 $ 14.650 $ 13.777 $ 12.213 $ 10.715 $ 10.134 $ 9.582 $ 7.741 $ 6.755 $ 6.582 $ 5.669 $ 5.171 $ 6.233 $ 6.635
리치몬드 대학교 VA $ 2.518 $ 2.512 $ 2.373 $ 2.372 $ 2.372 $ 2.313 $ 2.023 $ 1.868 $ 1.877 $ 1.615 $ 1.417 $ 1.704 $ 1.655
로체스터 대학교 NY $ 2.240 $ 2.257 $ 2.350 $ 2.190 $ 2.050 $ 2.015 $ 1.730 $ 1.582 $ 1.623 $ 1.368 $ 1.315 $ 1.731 $ 1.726
서던 캘리포니아 대학교 CA $ 5.732 $ 5.544 $ 5.128 $ 4.609 $ 4.710 $ 4.593 $ 3.868 $ 3.489 $ 3.517 $ 2.948 $ 2.671 $ 3.589 $ 3.715
툴사 대학교 확인 $ 1.114 $ 1.093 $ 1.026
밴더빌트 대학교 TN $ 6.271 4.608 달러 $ 4.136 $ 3.822 $ 4.134 4.086 달러 $ 3.673 $ 3.399 $ 3.415 $ 3.044 $ 2.834 $ 3.524 $ 3.487
바사 칼리지 NY $ 1.117 $ 1.083 $ 1.002
웨이크 포레스트 대학교 체크 안함 $ 1.375 $ 1.329 $ 1.205 $ 1.141 $ 1.167 $ 1.148 $ 1.061 $ 1.000 $ 1.032 $0.938 $0.887 $1.254 $1.249
Washington and Lee University VA $1.676 $1.603 $1.547 $1.472 $1.471 $1.478 $1.345 $1.262 $1.218 $1.008 $0.897 $1.027 $0.693
Washington University in St. Louis MO $7.954 $7.594 $7.130 $6.462 $6.819 $6.643 $5.651 $5.226 $5.280 $4.473 $4.081 $5.350 $5.658
Wellesley College MA $2.173 $2.105 $1.930 $1.785 $1.854 $1.808 $1.550 $1.445 $1.500 $1.307 $1.266 $1.611
Wesleyan University CT $1.005
Williams College MA $2.889 $2.750 $2.508 $2.256 $2.395 $2.253 $1.996 $1.799 $1.784 $1.527 $1.409 $1.808 $1.892
Yale University CT $30.314 $29.351 $27.176 $25.409 $25.572 $23.900 $20.780 $19.345 $19.374 $16.652 $16.327 $22.870 $22.530

The following states have no private university with >$1B endowment according to the NACUBO report for 2018: AK, AL, AR, AZ, CO, HI, ID, KS, MI, MN, MT, MS, ND, NM, NV, OR, SC, SD, UT, WA, WI, WV, WY.

Although not listed, Brigham Young University has an endowment worth $1.72 billion (2017), according to NCES.[23]

Public schools

Data are compiled annually by the National Association of College and University Business Officers (short scale billions are used).[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]

Institution State 2019
(billions USD)[11]
2018
(billions USD)[11]
2017
(billions USD)[22]
2016
(billions USD)[12]
2015
(billions USD)[13]
2014
(billions USD)[14]
2013
(billions USD)[15]
2012
(billions USD)[16]
2011
(billions USD)[17]
2010
(billions USD)[18]
2009
(billions USD)[19]
2008
(billions USD)[20]
2007
(billions USD)[21]
University of Arizona AZ $1.038
Georgia Institute of Technology GA $2.169 $2.091 $1.985 $1.844 $1.859 $1.889 $1.714 $1.608 $1.620 $1.051 $0.994 $1.344 $1.281
Indiana University
(system-wide)
IN $2.486 $2.397 $2.229 $1.986 $1.974 $1.988 $1.735 $1.577 $1.575 $1.371 $1.227 $1.546 $1.557
Iowa State University IA $1.102 $1.064
Michigan State University MI $3.033 $2.908 $2.683 $2.225 $2.700 $2.145 $1.367 $1.407 $1.400 $1.148 $1.047 $1.282 $1.248
North Carolina State University NC $1.401 $1.294 $1.123 $0.999
Ohio State University OH $5.257 $5.211 $4.253 $3.579 $3.634 $3.548 $3.149 $2.366 $2.121 $1.869 $1.652 $2.076 $2.338
Pennsylvania State University
(system-wide)
PA $4.546 $4.264 $3.991 $3.602 $3.636 $3.446 $ 2.956 $ 1.780 $ 1.725 $ 1.368 $ 1.226 $ 1.545 $ 1.590
Purdue University
(시스템 전체)
$ 2.625 $ 2.524 $ 2.425 $ 2.255 $ 2.398 $ 2.443 $ 2.182 $ 1.917 $ 2.002 $ 1.633 $ 1.458 $ 1.736 $ 1.787
Rutgers University (시스템 전체) NJ $ 1.476 $ 1.330 $ 1.220 $ 1.077 $ 1.002 0.918 달러 0.783 달러 $ 0.694 $ 0.699 $ 0.603 $ 0.545 $ 0.640 $ 0.654
Texas A & M University System
(시스템 전체)
TX $ 13.515 $ 13.525 $ 11.556 $ 10.540 $ 10.477 $ 11.104 $ 8.732 $ 7.639 $ 7.000 $ 5.738 $ 5.084 $ 6.659 $ 6.590
Texas Tech University
(시스템 전체)
TX $ 1.317 $ 1.307 $ 1.262 $ 1.126 $ 1.178 $ 1.195 0.964 달러 0.869 달러 $ 0.891 0.775 달러 $ 0.680 0.793 달러 $ 0.642
앨라배마 대학교
(시스템 전체)
AL $ 1.520 $ 1.452 $ 1.351 $ 1.221 $ 1.239 $ 1.235 $ 1.055 0.986 달러 0.995 달러 0.854 달러 0.796 달러 0.998 달러 $ 1.000
아칸소 대학교 재단 AR $ 1.222 $1.199
University of California
(system-wide regents portions only)
CA $11.008 $11.798 $9.788 $8.341 $7.997 $7.384 $6.337 $5.963 $6.342 $5.441 $4.937 $6.217 $6.439
University of California, Berkeley CA $2.071 $1.944 $1.795 $1.586 $1.575 $1.496 $1.243 $1.089 $1.055 $0.996 $0.895 $0.872 $0.837
University of California, Los Angeles CA $2.747 $2.523 $2.063 $1.803 $1.865 $1.733 $1.526 $1.331 $1.486 $0.996 $0.895 $1.054 $0.975
University of California, San Francisco CA $1.840 $1.644 $1.307 $1.139 $1.161 $0.944 $0.675 $0.643 $0.509 $0.439 $0.468 $0.471
University of Cincinnati OH $1.453 $1.367 $1.283 $1.166 $1.196 $1.184 $1.045 $0.976 $1.003 $0.886 $0.884 $1.099 $1.185
University of Colorado CO $1.453 $1.361 $1.220 $1.063 $1.090 $1.063 $0.885 $0.771 $0.785 $0.665 $0.593 $0.870 $0.717
University of Delaware DE $1.466 $1.413 $1.364 $1.262 $1.341 $1.310 $1.171 $1.088 $1.138 $1.092 $1.008 $1.340 $1.397
University of Florida FL $1.825 $1.735 $1.612 $1.462 $1.556 $1.520 $1.359 $1.263 $1.295 $1.105 $1.011 $1.251 $1.219
University of Georgia & Related Foundations GA $1.344 $1.274 $1.152 $1.017
University of Illinois system
[24](system-wide)
IL $2.354 $2.294 $2.441 $2.291 $2.388 $2.278 $1.925 $1.667 $1.601 $1.290 $1.112 $1.459 $1.515
University of Iowa IA $1.579 $1.500 $1.387 $1.259 $1.263 $1.251 $1.094 $0.981 $1.044 $0.792 $0.766 $0.935 $0.982
University of Kansas KS $1.817 $1.741 $1.612 $1.475 $1.500 $1.471 $1.228 $1.182 $1.250 $1.198 $0.955 $1.218 $1.239
University of Kentucky KY $1.407 $1.361 $1.285 $1.119 $1.143 $1.137 $0.992 $0.900 $0.916 $0.779 $0.697 $0.909 $0.958
University of Maryland System & Foundation MD $1.436 $1.298 $1.099
University of Michigan MI $12.449 $11.902 $10.936 $9.743 $9.952 $9.731 $8.382 $7.691 $7.835 $6.564 $6.001 $7.572 $7.090
University of Minnesota MN $3.951 $3.717 $3.494 $3.281 $3.297 $3.165 $2.757 $2.494 $2.503 $2.196 $2.086 $2.751 $2.804
University of Missouri
(system-wide)
MO $1.675 $1.603 $1.460 $1.477 $1.441 $1.259 $1.172 $1.119 $0.975 $0.882 $1.025 $1.098
University of Nebraska
(system-wide)
NE $1.436 $1.723 $1.617 $1.475 $1.538 $1.547 $1.338 $1.215 $1.242 $1.143 $0.965 $1.221 $1.277
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill NC $3.671 $3.433 $3.027 $2.890 $2.989 $2.696 $2.381 $2.179 $2.261 $1.979 $1.905 $2.359 $2.164
University of Oklahoma OK $1.735 $1.646 $1.520 $1.523 $1.493 $1.324 $1.172 $1.212 $0.968 $0.848 $1.155 $1.114
University of Pittsburgh PA $4.311 $4.200 $3.945 $3.525 $3.589 $3.493 $2.975 $2.618 $2.527 $2.033 $1.837 $2.334 $2.254
University of Tennessee system
(system-wide)
TN $1.355 $1.298 $1.215 $1.100 $1.107 $1.072 $0.919 $0.827 $0.848 $0.729 $0.887 $0.954
University of Texas System
(system-wide)
TX $30.958 $30.886 $26.535 $24.203 $24.083 $25.426 $20.448 $18.264 $17.149 $14.052 $12.163 $16.111 $15.614
University of Utah UT $1.225 $1.186 $1.127 $1.071
University of Virginia VA $7.058 $6.953 $6.394 $5.852 $6.181 $5.946 $5.116 $4.789 $4.761 $3.707 $3.577 $4.526 $4.370
University of Washington WA $2.935 $2.764 $2.529 $2.968 $3.076 $2.833 $2.346 $2.111 $2.154 $1.905 $1.649 $2.262 $2.184
University of Wisconsin–Madison WI $3.153 $2.985 $2.746 $2.419 $2.465 $2.332 $2.020 $1.812 $1.873 $1.551 $1.373 $1.735 $1.645
Virginia Commonwealth University VA $2.043 $1.951 $1.843 $1.560 $1.638 $1.509 $1.327 $0.438 $0.350 $0.281 $0.253 $0.330 $0.329
Virginia Tech Foundation VA $1.358 $1.146
Washington State University WA $1.068 $1.024

The following states have no public university with >$1B endowment according to the NACUBO report for 2018: AK, CT, HI, ID, LA, MA, ME, MT, MS, ND, NH, NM, NV, NY, OR, RI, SC, SD, VT, WV, WY.

Top 10 endowments per student

Blair Hall at Princeton University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States.
Rank Institution Endowment per capita (2020)[25]
1 Princeton University $2,864,026
2 Soka University of America $2,785,613
3 Yale University $1,864,075
4 Stanford University $1,562,919
5 Harvard University $1,546,888
6 Massachusetts Institute of Technology $1,431,191
7 Pomona College $1,340,629
8 Swarthmore College $1,298,813
9 California Institute of Technology $1,296,611
10 Amherst College $1,230,609

See also

References

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  3. ^ "Wealthy colleges face uncertainty as they seek ways to avoid new endowment tax". www.insidehighered.com. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  4. ^ "The wealthiest universities are paying big endowment tax bills, but how much are others who are on the hook paying?". www.insidehighered.com. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
  5. ^ "End the Endowment Tax". The Harvard Crimson. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  6. ^ a b Wilson, John. "Why the Endowment Tax Is Unconstitutional". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  7. ^ Powell, Alvin (21 December 2017). "Tax on university endowments passes". The Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  8. ^ Kreighbaum, Andrew (23 April 2018). "Endowment Tax Fight Not Over Yet". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  9. ^ "H.R.5220 - Don't Tax Higher Education Act". Congress.gov. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  10. ^ "H.R.4438 - Don't Tax Higher Education Act". Congress.gov. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
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  16. ^ a b c d "2012 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). January 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  17. ^ a b c d "2011 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments Results" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). 2012-01-17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
  18. ^ a b c d "2010 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-01. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
  19. ^ a b c d "2009 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-14. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
  20. ^ a b c d "2008 NACUBO Endowment Study" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-29. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  21. ^ a b c d "2007 NACUBO Endowment Study" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
  22. ^ a b "2017 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  23. ^ "Endowment funds of the 120 degree-granting postsecondary institutions with the largest endowments, by rank order: Fiscal year 2017". National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  24. ^ https://uif.uillinois.edu/endowment-performance
  25. ^ "Rankings | Highest endowment per student". College Raptor. Retrieved 3 August 2020.