남용 - Abuse

남용부당하게 또는 부적절하게 이익을 얻기 위해 물건을 부적절하게 사용하거나 취급하는 것 입니다. [1] 학대는 신체적 또는 언어 적 학대, 상해, 폭행 , 위반, 강간 , 부당한 관행, 범죄 또는 기타 유형의 공격 과 같은 다양한 형태로 나타날 수 있습니다 . 이러한 설명에 다른 인간을 자신의 목적이 아닌 목적을위한 수단으로 사용하는 것이 잘못되었다는 칸트의 개념을 추가 할 수도 있습니다. [2] 일부 출처는 학대를 "사회적 구성"이라고 설명합니다. 이는 다른시기와 사회에서 피해자의 고통을 어느 정도 인식 할 수 있음을 의미합니다. [삼]

학대의 유형과 맥락

권위 남용

정치적 부패의 형태로 된 권위 남용은 불법적 인 사적 이익을 위해 정부 관리가 합법적이거나 승인 한 권한을 사용하는 것입니다. 정치적 반대자에 대한 탄압 및 일반 경찰의 폭력같은 다른 목적으로 정부 권력을 남용하는 것은 정치적 부패로 간주되지 않습니다. 민간인이나 정부와 직접 관련이없는 기업의 불법 행위도 아닙니다. 공직자의 불법 행위는 공무와 직결되는 경우에만 정치적 부패로 간주됩니다.

권위 남용 은 원래 용인 된 행위라는 점 에서 권력 남용과 분리되어 있지만 처음에 생각했던 것 이상으로 확장되며 모든 경우에 그런 것은 아닙니다.

시체 남용

참조 : Necrophilia

재량 남용

재량의 남용은 특정 문제와 관련된 사실 및 법률을 적절히 고려하지 않는 것입니다. 판례 및 확정 된 사법 관습에서 임의적이거나 불합리한 이탈. [4]

지배력 남용

기업의 시장 지배력은 독점 금지법 또는 독점 금지법으로 알려진 경쟁법의 공적 및 사적 집행에 의해 규제됩니다.

면죄부 남용

가톨릭 교회에서 방종은 종종기도, 순례 또는 선행을 통해 죄에 대한 형벌을 줄이는 방법입니다. 중세 시대에 일부 교회 관리들은 죄 사함과 미래의 구원과 같은 다른 보상의 대가로 돈을 요구했습니다.

정보 남용

정보 남용은 일반적으로 신뢰 위반 또는 표절을 포함하거나 승인 된 정보 이상으로 정보의 신뢰를 확장하는 것입니다.

금융 세계에서 내부자 거래 는 투자에 불공정 한 이점을 제공하는 내부 정보의 오용으로 간주 될 수도 있습니다.

권력 남용

"직위 부정 행위"또는 "공식적 위법 행위"의 형태로 된 권력 남용은 공식적인 권한으로 행해지 불법 행위로, 공식 직무 수행에 영향을 미칩니다. 사무실에서 부정 행위는 종종 근거 인 원인 에 의해 선출 된 공무원의 제거 법령 또는 리콜 선거 .

프로세스 남용

한 당사자가 근본적인 법적 조치에 의해 정당화되지 않는 정기적으로 발행 된 법원 절차 (민사 또는 형사)를 악의적이고 고의적으로 오용하거나 왜곡함으로써 발생하는 불법 행위 행위 의 원인 .

계급 남용

계급주의 (계급 남용이라고도 함)는 낮은 계급의 사람들을 학대, ​​차별 또는 착취적인 방식으로 대합니다. [5] 로버트 W. 풀러 는 계급주의가 우월한 계급에 내재 된 권력의 남용을 포함한다고 주장하며, 계급 기반 학대는 괴롭힘 , 인종 차별, 성 차별 , 동성애 혐오 와 같은 다른 많은 현상의 기초가된다고 생각합니다 .

통계 남용

참조 : 통계 남용

시스템 남용

참조 : Abuse # Gaming the system

신뢰 남용

참조 : 신뢰 위치

학대 감독

학대 감독 은 가정 및 학교와 같은 다른 영역에서 발생할 수 있지만 직장에서 가장 일반적으로 연구됩니다. "부정적인 작업장 결과에 대한 선행으로 학대 감독이 조사되었습니다." [6] [7] " 직장 폭력 은 상황 적 요인과 개인적 요인이 결합되어 있습니다." 수행 된 연구는 학대 감독과 다양한 직장 행사 간의 연관성을 조사했습니다. [8]

학업 학대

학대는 대학과 같은 고등 교육 기관에서 일어나는 직장 내 괴롭힘의 한 형태입니다. 학계는 경쟁이 치열하고 체계가 잘 정의되어 있으며 중학교 직원이 특히 취약합니다.

Ad Hominem 남용

인신 공격 (개인적 학대 또는 인신 공격이라고도 함)은 일반적으로 상대방의 주장을 무효화하기 위해 상대방을 모욕 하거나 경멸 하는 것을 포함 하지만, 사실적이지만 표면적 인 성격의 결함이나 상대방의 주장과 무관 한 행동을 지적하는 것도 포함될 수 있습니다.

청소년 학대

참조 : 반사회적 행동 , 청소년 비행 , 청소년부모 학대, 청소년의 부모 학대

성인 학대

성인 학대는 취약한 성인을 학대하는 것을 말합니다 . [9]

알코올 남용

DSM-IV에 설명 된 알코올 남용 은 부정적인 결과에도 불구하고 반복되는 알코올 음료 사용을 설명하는 정신과 적 진단 입니다. [10] 알코올 남용은 때때로 덜 구체적인 용어 인 알코올 중독으로 도 불립니다 . 그러나 알코올 중독에 대한 많은 정의가 존재하며 일부만 알코올 남용과 호환됩니다. 알코올 중독자에는 반 사회적 성향과 쾌락을 추구하는 성향이있는 사람들과 불안에 휩싸인 사람들-오랜 시간 동안 술을 마시지 않고 갈 수 있지만 일단 시작하면 스스로를 통제 할 수없는 사람들이 있습니다. [11] 폭음알코올 남용의 또 다른 형태입니다. 빈번한 폭음 또는 두 번 이상 심하게 취하는 것은 알코올 남용으로 분류됩니다. [12] 국제 설문 조사를 통해 수행 된 연구에 따르면 가장 많이 마시는 사람은 영국의 청소년 세대입니다. [13]

동물 학대

동물 학대는 자기 방어 이외의 목적으로 인간 이외의 동물 에게 고통 이나 해를 입히는 것입니다. 더 좁게 말하면 모피를 위해 동물을 죽이는 것과 같은 특정 이득에 해를 끼칠 수 있습니다. 다양한 관점은 전 세계의 관할권에서 유지됩니다.

반사회적 행동

반사회적 행동은 종종 다른 사람에 대한 판단과 배려가 결여되어 자신이나 재산을 손상시킬 수있는 공공 행동으로 간주됩니다. 기물 파손 또는 낙서 와 같이 의도적 이거나 과실 의 결과 일 수 있습니다 . 지속적인 반사회적 행동은 반사회적 성격 장애 의 징후 일 수 있습니다 . 반사회적 행동에 대응하는 것은 친 사회적 행동 , 즉 다른 사람, 집단 또는 사회를 돕거나 이롭게하기위한 모든 행동입니다. [14]

괴롭힘

괴롭힘은 시간이 지남에 따라 권력의 실제적 또는인지 된 불균형을 수반하는 반복적 인 행위이며 더 강력한 개인 또는 집단이 덜 강력한 사람들을 공격합니다. [15] - 왕따 남용의 세 가지 기본 유형으로 구성 될 수 언어 적 , 신체적정신적 . 그것은 일반적 으로 협박 과 같은 미묘한 강압 방법을 포함 합니다. 괴롭힘은 다양한 방식으로 정의 될 수 있습니다. 영국은 현재 왕따에 대한 법적 정의가 없지만 [16] 일부 미국 주에서는 이에 대한 법률이 있습니다. 괴롭힘은 일반적으로 두려움 이나 위협으로 다른 사람을 강요하기 위해 수행됩니다 .

캐릭터 암살

캐릭터 암살은 사람의 평판 을 손상시키려는 시도 입니다. 대상자의 사실이 아닌 그림을 제시하기 위해 사실을 과장 하거나 조작 하는 것이 포함될 수 있습니다 . 그것은의 한 형태 명예 훼손 과의 한 형태가 될 수 인신 공격 인자 (사람에게).

아동 학대

아동 학대는 아동에 대한 신체적 또는 심리적 / 정서적 학대입니다. 미국 질병 통제 예방 센터 (CDC)는 아동 학대를 부모 또는 기타 보호자에 의한 일련의 위임 또는 태만 행위로 정의합니다. 아이. [17] 대부분의 아동 학대는 아동의 집에서 발생하며, 아동이 상호 작용하는 조직, 학교 또는 커뮤니티에서 발생하는 비율은 적습니다. 아동 학대에는 방치 , 신체적 학대 , 심리적 / 정서적 학대 , 성적 학대의 네 가지 주요 범주가 있습니다 .

아동의 부모 학대

참조 : 학대 # 아동 학대

아동 성적 학대

아동 성적 학대의 한 형태이다 아동 학대 성적 자극하는 성인 세 이상 청소년 학대 아동한다. [18] [19] 이 다른 형태를 포함한다 : 일부 유형의 요청 또는 (결과와 관계없이)의 성적 활동에 종사하는 아이 가압 과다 노출 아이를 포르노 표시 아이에게 성기를 실제 성적 접촉 에 대해 아이보기, 성적 목적을 위해 아이의 성기와 신체 접촉에 참여, 또는 생산에 아이 사용하여 아동 포르노를 . [18] [20] [21]

아동에 대한 성적 학대

아동-아동 성적 학대는 한 명 이상의 다른 아동이나 청소년이 사춘기 전 아동을 ​​성적으로 학대하고 성인이 직접 관여하지 않는 아동 성적 학대 의 한 형태를 말합니다 . 여기에는 동의없이, 평등없이 또는 강압 의 결과로 발생하는 아동 간의 성행위가 포함됩니다 . [22] 물리적 인 힘, 위협, 속임수 나 특히 감정적 조작이 야기가 공동 작업에 사용된다.

교회 학대

참조 : 학대 # 영적 학대

민권 남용

은밀한 남용

은밀한 학대는 성적 , 심리적 또는 신체적 학대로서 "목적을 위해 비밀로 유지되거나, 은폐되거나, 은밀하게 처리됩니다." [23]

사무적 학대

참조 : 가톨릭 성학대 사례

사이버 남용 또는 사이버 괴롭힘

사이버 괴롭힘은 "다른 사람에게 해를 끼치려는 의도로 개인 또는 그룹의 고의적, 반복적, 적대적 행동을 지원하기 위해 정보 및 통신 기술을 사용하는 것을 포함합니다." -빌 벨시 [24]

데이트 폭력 또는 데이트 폭력

데이트 학대는 데이트 관계 에서 한 사람 또는 두 파트너가 보여주는 학대 행위의 패턴입니다 . 행동에는 다음이 포함될 수 있지만 이에 국한되지는 않습니다. 신체적 학대 ; 심리적 학대 ; 그리고 성적 학대 .

중상

명예 훼손은 개인 , 기업, 제품 , 그룹 , 정부 또는 국가에 부정적인 이미지를 줄 수있는 명시 적이거나 사실적인 주장을하는 진술을 전달하는 것 입니다. 그것은 일반적으로-하지만 항상 [주 1] 요구 사항이 주장은 거짓 있고 게시 명예 훼손 사람이 아닌 다른 사람에게 전달하도록합니다 (이라고 원고를 ).

수감자 학대

참조 : 학대 # 교도소 학대 또는 죄수 학대

장애 학대

주목 된 장애인 사람들이 불균형 적 장애 남용에 의해 영향을받는 집단 괴롭힘 , 이러한 활동이 인용 된 증오 범죄 . [25] 괴롭힘은 눈에 띄게 사용할 수있는 사람들에 한정되지 않고, - 물리적 기형 (예컨대, 휠체어 사용자 또는 개인으로 갈라진 입술 뿐만 아니라 가진 사람 -) 학습 장애자폐증 [26] [27]개발 협력 무질서 . [28] [29]후자의 경우, 이는 체육 능력 부족과 관련이 있으며 무지한 체육 교사가 이러한 행동을 장려 할 수 있습니다. 장애인 학대는 학교에만 국한되지 않습니다. 브리스톨 근처 의 Castlebeck 요양원 ( Winterbourne View ) BBC Panorama 프로그램에서 공개 된 사례와 같이 "요양 기관"의 직원이 장애인을 학대 하여 폐쇄 및 중단 또는 직원 해고. [30]

차별적 남용

차별적 학대는 다른 사람에 대한 내용이 다르기 때문에 누군가를 부당하게 선택하거나 대우하는 것입니다. 예를 들면 다음과 같습니다.

레드 라인 과 같은 차별 법 은 많은 국가에서 존재했습니다. 일부 국가에서는 인종 쿼터 와 같은 논란의 여지가있는 시도 가 차별의 부정적인 영향을 시정하는 데 사용되었습니다.

다른 차별 행위로는 정치적 명예 훼손 , 집단 명예 훼손 , 과장에 근거한 고정 관념이 있습니다.

의사 학대

참조 : Abuse # Medical abuse , Bullying in medicine , Patient abuse

가정 폭력 또는 가정 폭력

가정 폭력은 결혼, 동거, 가족, 데이트 또는 친구와 같은 친밀한 관계 에서 한 쪽 또는 두 파트너의 모든 형태의 학대 행위로 광범위하게 정의 될 수 있습니다 . 학대는 항상 고의적이며 우연히 일어날 수 없다는 것을 기억하는 것이 중요합니다. 가정 폭력에는 다음과 같은 다양한 형태가 있습니다.

  • 신체적 공격 (타기, 발 차기, 물기, 밀기, 제지, 물건 던지기) 또는 그에 대한 위협
  • 성적 학대
  • 정서적 학대
  • 재정적 학대 (돈을 보류하거나 다른 가족 구성원의 돈을 포함한 모든 돈을 통제)
  • 사회적 학대 (친구 및 / 또는 가족에 대한 접근 제한, 친구 및 / 또는 가족에 대한 모욕 또는 위협), 통제 또는 지배
  • 위협
  • 스토킹
  • 수동적 / 은밀한 남용 [31] [32] (예 : 방치 )
  • 경제적 박탈

지역의 동상에 따라 가정 폭력은 특정 행위의 심각성과 지속 시간 및 기타 변수에 따라 범죄를 구성 할 수도 있고 그렇지 않을 수도 있습니다. 알코올 섭취 [33]정신 질환 [34] 은 자주 학대와 관련이 있습니다.

약물 남용

참조 : Abuse # Substance abuse

경제적 남용

경제적 학대는 한 친밀한 파트너가 다른 파트너의 경제적 자원에 대한 접근을 통제 할 때 [35] 피해자가 자신을 부양 할 수있는 능력을 약화시키고 가해자에게 재정적으로 의존 하게 만드는 학대의 한 형태입니다 . [35] [36] [37]

노인 학대

노인 학대는 "노인에게 해를 끼치거나 고통을주는"방식으로 신뢰할 수있는 개인에 의한 학대와 관련하여 노인에게 해를 끼치는 유형입니다. [38] 이 정의는 영국의 노인 학대 에 대한 조치 가 제시 한 정의에서 세계 보건기구에 의해 채택되었습니다 . 학대에는 폭력, 방치 및 노인에 대한 기타 범죄가 포함되며 그 형태에는 신체적, 정신적, 재정적 학대와 수동적 및 능동적 방치가 포함됩니다. [39]

정서적 학대

참조 : 심리적 학대

정서적 학대의 정확한 정의에 대한 합의는 없지만 미국 연방 아동 학대 예방 및 치료법에 따라 정신적 상해의 한 형태로 분류됩니다 . [40] 미국 대부분의 주에서 인정하는 아동 복지 분야의 전형적인 법적 정의는 행동, 정서적 반응 또는인지의 관찰 가능하거나 실질적인 변화에 의해 입증되는 것처럼 심리적 능력이나 정서적 안정에 대한 손상으로 설명합니다. [41]

직원 학대

참조 : 직장 학대 또는 직장 괴롭힘

거짓 비난

허위 고발 (또는 허위 주장)은 다음과 같은 상황에서 발생할 수 있습니다.

재정적 남용

재정적 (또는 물질적) 남용의 예는 다음과 같습니다. 개인의 재산, 돈, 연금 수첩 또는 기타 귀중품의 불법 또는 무단 사용 ( 가해자를 상속인으로 지정하려는 사람의 의지 변경 포함 ); 그리고 종종 사기 로 위임장을 취득한 다음 자신의 집에서 퇴거하여 돈이나 기타 재산을 박탈합니다. 또는 그들의 나이나 장애를 이용하여.

추가 읽기

  • Baumhoefner, Arlen (2006). 청각 장애인의 재정적 학대 및 난청 노출.
  • Bechthold, Henry L (2003). 미국 기독교 교회의 휘파람 불기 : 정치적 위선, 이중 표준 및 재정적 학대 폭로.
  • Carnot, Edward J (2003). 부모가 좋은 손에 있습니까? : 연로 한 부모를 재정적 학대 및 방치로부터 보호 (자본 보호) .
  • Roubicek, Joe (2008). 노인의 재정적 학대; 착취 범죄에 대한 형사 사건 파일.

악용 사례 신고

깃발 남용 (또는 깃발 모독)은 공공 장소에서 의도적으로 깃발을 파괴, 손상 또는 절단하는 다양한 행위에 적용되는 용어입니다. 종종 그러한 행동은 국가 또는 정책에 반대하는 정치적 주장을하기위한 것입니다. 일부 국가에는 파괴 방법 (예 : 공공 장소에서의 소각) 또는 특정 용도 (예 : 상업적 목적)를 금지하는 법률이 있습니다. 그러한 법률은 자국 국기의 모독과 다른 나라의 국기를 구별 할 수 있습니다. 국가는 언론의 자유를 위해 깃발을 태울 권리를 보호하는 법이있을 수 있습니다.

시스템 게임

시스템 게임 (규칙 구부리기, 규칙 게임하기, 시스템 플레이, 시스템 남용, 시스템 착유 또는 시스템 작동이라고도 함)은 시스템을 보호하기위한 규칙 및 절차를 대신 사용 하여 시스템을 조작 하는 것으로 정의 할 수 있습니다. 원하는 결과를 위해. [42]

가스 라이팅

Gaslighting는 조작 지속을 통해 거부 , 오분, 모순, 그리고 거짓말을 하기위한 시도로 불안정 하고 대상을 delegitimize. 그것의 의도는 목표물에 의심의 씨앗을 뿌리고 그들이 자신의 기억, 지각 및 정신에 의문을 제기하도록하는 것입니다. [43] [44] 인스턴스 이전 학대 사건 적 피해를 혼란시키는 의도로 가해자가 이상한 이벤트 준비까지 발생한 남용자에 의해 거부의 범위 일 수있다. 이 용어 는 1938 년 연극과 1944 년 영화인 Gaslight 에서 유래 되었으며 임상 및 연구 문헌에 사용되었습니다. [45] [46]

게이 학대 또는 게이 강타

게이 강타 및 게이 괴롭힘은 가해자가 게이, 레즈비언 또는 양성애자로 인식하는 사람에 대한 언어 적 또는 신체적 학대 입니다. 여기에는 실제로 이성애자이거나 비특이적이거나 알 수없는 성적 지향을 포함 합니다.

집단 심리적 학대

집단 심리적 학대는 구성원들에게 심리적 학대 방법 이 자주 또는 체계적으로 사용되는 집단을 말합니다 . 이러한 학대는 구성원을 자율성, 인권, 정체성 및 존엄성을 존중하는 대신 자유롭게 조작 할 수있는 대상으로 취급하는 관행입니다 . 그룹에서 그들은 피해자가 받아 들여진 것처럼 보이게 할 수있는 다른 사람과 마인드 게임 을 할 수도 있지만, 실제로는 그 / 그녀가 등을 돌릴 때 그 사람을 백스탭 하고 있습니다. 피해자가 학대 그룹에 도움을 요청하면 제공되지 않습니다.

괴롭힘

괴롭힘은 광범위한 공격 행위를 포함합니다. 일반적으로 방해하거나 화를 내기위한 행동으로 이해됩니다. 법적 의미 에서 위협적이거나 방해 가되는 행동입니다 .

권력 괴롭힘 은 종종 직장 환경에서 발생하는 정치적 성격의 괴롭힘 또는 원치 않는 관심입니다.

성희롱 은 일반적으로 직장에서 지속적이고 원치 않는 성적 접근을 의미하며, 성적 요청 거부의 결과는 잠재적으로 피해자에게 매우 불리합니다.

증오 범죄

증오 범죄는 가해자가 특정 사회 집단에 속해 있다고 인식되어 피해자를 표적으로 삼을 때 발생합니다 . 일반적으로 인종 , 종교, 성적 지향 , 장애 , 민족 , 국적, 연령 , 성별 , 성 정체성 또는 정치적 소속으로 정의 됩니다. [47]

"증오 범죄"는 일반적으로 나열된 조건 중 하나 이상 대한 증오심의해 동기가 부여 된 것으로 보이는 범죄 행위의미합니다 . 사건에는 신체적 폭행 , 재산 피해, 괴롭힘 , 괴롭힘 , 언어 적 학대 또는 모욕 , 모욕적 인 낙서 또는 선동적인 편지 (증오 메일) 가 포함될 수 있습니다 . [48]

헤징

괴롭힘은 괴롭힘 , 학대 또는 굴욕포함하는 모든 활동으로 간주 되어 한 사람을 그룹 으로 시작 합니다 .

Hazing은 다양한 유형의 그룹에서 볼 수 있습니다. 내 포함 , 클럽, 스포츠 팀 , 군부대직장 . 미국과 캐나다에서 헤이 징은 종종 그리스 문자 조직 ( 형제회 및 여학생 클럽 ) 과 관련이 있습니다 . 신고식은 종종 법으로 금지되어 하나의 물리적 (가능하게 할 수있다 폭력 ), 정신적 (아마도 저하 ) 관행. 과도한 노출이나 성적인 활동도 포함될 수 있습니다.

인권 남용

인권은 " 모든 인간 이받을 수있는 기본 권리와 자유 "입니다. [49] 일반적으로 인권이 포함로 생각 될 왔습니다 권리와 자유의 예 시민 적 및 정치적 권리 와 같은 삶과 권리로, 자유 , 표현의 자유법 앞에 평등 ; 그리고 문화 에 참여할 권리 , 존중과 존엄으로 대우 받을 권리 , 음식 에 대한 권리 , 일할 권리 , 그리고 특정 국가 에서 교육에 대한 권리 를 포함한 경제적, 사회적, 문화적 권리 .

굴욕

굴욕의 비하 인 프라이드 된 상태로 고행 또는 리드를 생성 낮추 거나 낮춘 또는 감소 제출 . 그것은을 통해 초래 될 수 따돌림 , 협박 , 또는으로, 신체적 또는 정신적 학대 또는 속임수 당황 사람이 사회적 또는 법적으로 허용되지 않는 행위를 저지른 것으로 드러났합니다.

무례

무례는 사회적 행동에 대한 일반적인 용어가 문명이나 좋은 부족이다 매너 에 이르기까지, 무례 하거나 부족 과 관련 장로를 향해; 기물 파손폭력 행위 ; 또는 공공의 음주 와 위협적인 행동. [50]

제도적 학대

제도 남용은 일반적으로 발생할 수 요양소 , 양로원 설정, 급성 병원에서 환자 및 다음 중 하나가 될 수 있습니다 [51]

추가 읽기

  • 바터, 크리스틴 (1998). 아동의 기관 학대 조사 (정책, 실무, 연구). NSPCC (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children). ISBN 978-0902498846
  • Beker, Jerome (1982). 아동 및 청소년에 대한 기관 학대 (아동 및 청소년 서비스) . Routledge.
  • Manthorpe J, Penhale B, Stanley N (1999). 제도적 학대 : 삶의 과정에 대한 관점. Routledge.
  • Westcott, Helen L (1991). 아동의 제도적 학대 – 연구에서 정책으로 : 검토 (정책, 실습, 연구 S.) 아동 학대 예방을위한 국립 학회 (NSPCC).

모욕

모욕은 모욕적이고 모욕적 인 것으로 간주되는 표현, 진술 또는 행동입니다.

위협

협박은 "평범한 감각을 가진 사람에게 부상이나 해를 입힐 수있는"고의적 인 행동 입니다. 그 행동이 너무 폭력적이어서 테러 를 일으키 거나 피해자가 실제로 겁을 먹었다는 것을 증명할 필요는 없습니다 . [52] " 협박, 강압 또는 공포를 심어줌으로써 본질적으로 정치적, 종교적 또는 이데올로기 적 목표를 달성하기위한 폭력의 계산 된 사용 또는 폭력 위협 "은 테러리즘으로 정의 될 수 있습니다. [53]

법적 남용

법적 남용은 민사형사 소송 관련된 남용을 의미합니다 . 남용을 포함한 법적 시스템의 거의 모든 부분에서 발생 할 수 경솔 하고 성가신 소송 , 법 집행 기관에 의해 남용 , 무능, 부주의 또는 손상 변호사사법부에서 위법 행위 그 자체. [54] [55]

법적 학대는 불의 뿐만 아니라 신체적 , 심리적 , 사회적 건강 에도 해를 끼 칩니다. [56]

레즈비언 학대

참조 : 게이 학대 또는 게이 강타

부정 요법

참조 : 과실

시장 남용

금융 투자자가 다음과 같은 다른 사람에 의해 직간접 적으로 불합리하게 불리한 상황에서 시장 남용이 발생할 수 있습니다. [57]

  • 공개되지 않은 정보를 사용했습니다 (내부 거래).
  • 금융 상품의 가격 설정 메커니즘을 왜곡했습니다.
  • 허위 또는 오해의 소지가있는 정보를 유포했습니다.

물질적 남용

참조 : 재정적 남용

의학적 학대

Mental abuse

See: Psychological abuse

Military abuse

War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war", including "murder, the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied territory to slave labor camps", "the murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war", the killing of hostages, "the wanton destruction of cities, towns and villages, and any devastation not justified by military, or civilian necessity".[58]

War rape is rape committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict or war. During war and armed conflict rape is frequently used as means of psychological warfare to humiliate the enemy and undermine their morale.

Military sexual trauma is sexual assault and rape experienced by military personnel. It is often accompanied by posttraumatic stress disorder.[59]

Mind abuse or mind control

Mind abuse or mind control refers to a process in which a group or individual "systematically uses unethically manipulative methods to persuade others to conform to the wishes of the manipulator(s), often to the detriment of the person being manipulated".[60] The term has been applied to any tactic, psychological or otherwise, which can be seen as subverting an individual's sense of control over their own thinking, behaviour, emotions or decision making.

Misconduct

Misconduct means a wrongful, improper, or unlawful conduct motivated by premeditated or intentional purpose or by obstinate indifference to the consequences of one's acts. Three categories of misconduct are official misconduct, professional misconduct and sexual misconduct.

Mobbing

Mobbing means bullying of an individual by a group in any context. Identified as emotional abuse in the workplace (such as "ganging up" on someone by co-workers, subordinates or superiors) to force someone out of the workplace through rumour, innuendo, intimidation, humiliation, discrediting, and isolation, it is also referred to as malicious, nonsexual, nonracial, general harassment.[61]

Mobbing can take place in any group environment such as a workplace, neighbourhood or family.

Narcissistic abuse

Narcissistic abuse is a term that emerged in the late 20th century, and became more prominent in the 2000s decade. It originally referred specifically to abuse by narcissistic parents of their children, but more recently has come to mean any abuse by a narcissist (egotistical person or someone with arrogant pride).

Neglect

Neglect is a passive form of abuse in which a caregiver responsible for providing care for a victim (a child, a physically or mentally disabled adult, an animal, a plant, or an inanimate object) fails to provide adequate care for the victim's needs, to the detriment of the victim. It is typically seen as a form of laziness or apathy on the form of the caregiver, rather than ignorance due to inability; accordingly, neglect of a child by and adult with mental disorders or who is overworked is not considered abuse, although this may constitute child neglect nonetheless.

Examples of neglect include failing to provide sufficient supervision, nourishment, medical care or other needs for which the victim is helpless to provide for themselves.

Negligence

Negligence is conduct that is culpable (to blame) because it falls short of what a reasonable person would do to protect another individual from foreseeable risks of harm.

Nurse abuse or nursing abuse

Online abuse

See: Abuse#Cyber abuse or cyber bullying

Parental abuse by children

Abuse of parents by their children is a common but under-reported and under-researched subject. Parents are quite often subject to levels of childhood aggression, typically in the form of verbal or physical abuse, in excess of normal childhood aggressive outbursts. Parents feel a sense of shame and humiliation to have that problem, so they rarely seek help; nor is much help available today.[62][63]

Passive–aggressive behaviour

Passive–aggressive behaviour is a form of covert abuse. It is passive, sometimes obstructionist resistance to following through with expectations in interpersonal or occupational situations. It can manifest itself as learned helplessness, procrastination, stubbornness, resentment, sullenness, or deliberate and repeated failures in accomplishing tasks for which one is (often explicitly) expected to do.

Patient abuse

Patient abuse or neglect is any action or failure to act which causes unreasonable suffering, misery or harm to the patient. It includes physically striking or sexually assaulting a patient. It also includes withholding of necessary food, physical care, and medical attention. It applies to various contexts such as hospitals, nursing homes, clinics and home visits.[64]

Peer abuse

"Peer abuse" is an expression popularised by author Elizabeth Bennett in 2006 to reinforce the idea that it is as valid to identify bullying as a form of abuse just as one would identify any other form of abuse.[65] The term conveys similar connotations to the term peer victimisation.

Persecution

Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another group. The most common forms are religious persecution, ethnic persecution, and political persecution; though there is naturally some overlap between these terms.

Personal abuse or personal attacks

See: Abuse#Ad hominem abuse

Physical abuse

Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation, pain, injury, or other physical suffering or bodily harm.

Torture

Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted.

Police abuse

Police brutality is the intentional use of excessive force by a police officer. Though usually physical it has the potential to arise in the form of verbal attacks or psychological intimidation. It is in some instances triggered by "contempt of cop", i.e., perceived disrespect towards police officers.

Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits and/or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest.

Police misconduct refers to inappropriate actions taken by police officers in connection with their official duties. Police misconduct can lead to a miscarriage of justice and sometimes involves discrimination.

Political abuse

Further reading

  • Behera, Navnita Chadha Perpetuating the divide: Political abuse of history in South Asia journal Contemporary South Asia, Volume 5, Issue 2 July 1996, Pages 191–205
  • Birley, J. Political abuse of psychiatry Psychiatry, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 22–25
  • Bonnie, Richard J. Political Abuse of Psychiatry in the Soviet Union and in China: Complexities and Controversies J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 30:136–44, 2002[66]
  • Zwi, AB. The political abuse of medicine and the challenge of opposing it. Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):649-57.

Prejudice

A prejudice is a preconceived belief, opinion, or judgment toward a group of people or a single person because of race, social class, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, disability, political beliefs, religion, line of work or other personal characteristics. It also means a priori beliefs (without knowledge of the facts) and includes "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence."[67] Although positive and negative prejudice both exist, when used negatively, "prejudice" implies fear and antipathy toward such a group or person.

Prison abuse or prisoner abuse

Prisoner abuse is the mistreatment of persons while they are under arrest or incarcerated. Abuse falling into this category includes:

Professional abuse

Professional abusers:[68]

Abuse may be:

Professional abuse always involves:

Further reading

  • Dorpat, Theodore L (1996). Gaslighting, the Double Whammy, Interrogation and Other Methods of Covert Control in Psychotherapy and Analysis. Jason Aronson, Incorporated.
  • Penfold, P. Susan (1998). Sexual Abuse by Health Professionals: A Personal Search for Meaning and Healing. University of Toronto Press.

Psychological abuse

Psychological abuse, also referred to as emotional abuse or mental abuse, is a form of abuse characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behavior that is psychologically harmful. Such abuse is often associated with situations of power imbalance, such as abusive relationships, bullying, child abuse and in the workplace.

Racial abuse

Racism is abusive attitudes or treatment of others based on the belief that race is a primary determinant of human traits and capacities. It is a form of pride that one's own race is superior and, as a result, has a right to "rule or dominate others," according to a Macquarie Dictionary definition. Racism is correlated with and can foster race-based prejudice, violence, dislike, discrimination, and oppression.

Ragging

Ragging is a form of abuse on newcomers to educational institutions in India, Sri Lanka, and Australia. It is similar to the American phenomenon known as hazing. Currently, Sri Lanka is said to be its worst affected country in the world.[69][70]

Rape

Rape, a form of sexual assault, is an assault by a person involving sexual intercourse (with or without sexual penetration) of another without the other's consent (this includes those who are considered unable to consent, e.g., if they were inebriated or asleep)

The rate of reporting, prosecution and convictions for rape varies considerably in different jurisdictions. The US Bureau of Justice Statistics (1999) estimated that 91% of US rape victims are female and 9% are male, with 99% of the offenders being male.[71] In one survey of women, only two percent of respondents who stated they were sexually assaulted said that the assault was perpetrated by a stranger.[72] For men, male-male rape in prisons has been a significant problem.[73][74]

Relational aggression

Relational aggression, also known as covert aggression[75] or covert bullying[76] is a type of aggression in which harm is caused through damage to relationships or social status within a group rather than physical violence.[76][77] Relational aggression is more common and has been studied more among girls than boys.[77]

Religious abuse

Religious abuse refers to:

Resident abuse

See: Resident abuse

Rudeness

Rudeness (also called impudence or effrontery) is the disrespect and failure to behave within the context of a society or a group of people's social laws or etiquette.

Satanic ritual abuse

Satanic ritual abuse (SRA, sometimes known as ritual abuse, ritualistic abuse, organised abuse, sadistic ritual abuse and other variants) was a moral panic that originated in the United States in the 1980s, spreading throughout the country and eventually to many parts of the world, before subsiding in the late 1990s.

School bullying

School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in connection with education, either inside or outside of school. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional and is usually repeated over a period of time.[79][80]

Sectarian abuse

Self-abuse

Self-destructive behaviour is a broad set of extreme actions and emotions including self-harm and drug abuse. It can take a variety of forms, and may be undertaken for a variety of reasons. It tends to be most visible in young adults and adolescents, but may affect people of any age.

Sexual abuse

Sexual abuse is the forcing of undesired sexual behaviour by one person upon another, when that force falls short of being considered a sexual assault. The offender is referred to as a "sexual abuser" or – more pejoratively – "molester".[81] The term also covers any behaviour by any adult towards a child to stimulate either the adult or child sexually. When the victim is younger than the age of consent, it is referred to as child sexual abuse.

Sexual bullying

Sexual bullying is "any bullying behaviour, whether physical or non-physical, that is based on a person's sexuality or gender. It is when sexuality or gender is used as a weapon by boys or girls towards other boys or girls – although it is more commonly directed at girls. It can be carried out to a person's face, behind their back or through the use of technology."[82]

Sibling abuse

Sibling abuse is the physical, emotional, and/or sexual abuse of one sibling by another.

It is estimated[83] that as many as 3% of children are dangerously abusive towards a sibling, making sibling abuse more common than either child abuse by parents or spousal abuse.

Smear campaign

A "smear campaign", "smear tactic" or simply "smear" is a metaphor for activity that can harm an individual or group's reputation by conflation with a stigmatised group. Sometimes smear is used more generally to include any reputation-damaging activity, including such colloquialisms as mud slinging.

Societal abuse

See: Abuse#Structural abuse

Spiritual abuse

Spiritual abuse occurs when a person in religious authority or a person with a unique spiritual practice misleads and maltreats another person in the name of God or Chur or in the mystery of any spiritual concept. Spiritual abuse often refers to an abuser using spiritual or religious rank in taking advantage of the victim's spirituality (mentality and passion on spiritual matters) by putting the victim in a state of unquestioning obedience to an abusive authority.

Spousal abuse

See: Abuse#Domestic abuse or domestic violence

Stalking

Stalking is unwanted attention towards others by individuals (and sometimes groups of people). Stalking behaviours are related to harassment and intimidation. The word "stalking" is a term that has different meanings in different contexts in psychology and psychiatry; and some legal jurisdictions use it to refer to a certain type of criminal offence. It may also to refer to criminal offences or civil wrongs that include conduct which some people consider to be stalking, such as those described in law as "harassment" or similar terms.

Structural abuse

Structural abuse is sexual, emotional or physical abuse that is imposed on an individual or group by a social or cultural system or authority. Structural abuse is indirect, and exploits the victim on an emotional, mental or psychological level.

Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Widely differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well.[84] In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction.[85]

Surveillance abuse

Surveillance abuse is the use of surveillance methods or technology to monitor the activity of an individual or group of individuals in a way which violates the social norms or laws of a society. Mass surveillance by the state may constitute surveillance abuse if not appropriately regulated. Surveillance abuse often falls outside the scope of lawful interception. It is illegal because it violates peoples' right to privacy.

Taunting

A taunt is a battle cry, a method in hand-to-hand combat, sarcastic remark, or insult intended to demoralise the recipient, or to anger them and encourage reactionary behaviours without thinking. Taunting can exist as a form of social competition to gain control of the target's cultural capital (i.e. status).[citation needed] In sociological theory, the control of the three social capitals[note 2] is used to produce an advantage in the social hierarchy as to enforce one's own position in relation to others. Taunting is committed by either directly bullying, or indirectly encouraging others to bully the target. It is also possible to give a response of the same kind, to ensure one's own status. It can be compared to fighting words and trash-talk.

Teacher abuse

See: Teacher abuse

Teasing

Teasing is a word with many meanings. In human interactions, teasing comes in two major forms, playful and hurtful. In mild cases, and especially when it is reciprocal, teasing can be viewed as playful and friendly. However, teasing is often unwelcome and then it takes the form of harassment. In extreme cases, teasing may escalate to actual violence, and may even result in abuse. Children are commonly teased on such matters as their appearance, weight, behaviour, abilities, and clothing.[87] This kind of teasing is often hurtful, even when the teaser believes he or she is being playful. One may also tease an animal. Some animals, such as dogs and cats, may recognise this as play; but in humans, teasing can become hurtful and take the form of bullying and abuse.

Telephone abuse

See: Nuisance call

Terrorism

Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion.[88] At present, there is no internationally agreed definition of terrorism.[89][90] Common definitions of terrorism refer only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a lone attack), and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (e.g., neutral military personnel or civilians). It is sometimes sponsored by state policies when a country is not able to prove itself militarily to another enemy country.

Transgender abuse or trans bashing

Trans bashing is the act of victimising a person physically, sexually, or verbally because they are transgender or transsexual.[91] Unlike gay bashing, it is committed because of the target's actual or perceived gender identity, not sexual orientation.

Umpire abuse

Umpire abuse refers to the act of abuse towards an umpire, referee, or other official in sport. The abuse can be verbal abuse (such as namecalling), or physical abuse (such as punching).

Verbal abuse or verbal attacks

Verbal abuse is a form of abusive behaviour involving the use of language. It is a form of profanity that can occur with or without the use of expletives. While oral communication is the most common form of verbal abuse, it also includes abusive words in written form.

Verbal abuse is a pattern of behaviour that can seriously interfere with one's positive emotional development and can lead to significant detriment to one's self-esteem, emotional well-being, and physical state. It has been further described as an ongoing emotional environment organised by the abuser for the purposes of control.

Whispering campaign

A whispering campaign is a method of persuasion in which damaging rumours or innuendo are spread about the target, while the source of the rumours seeks to avoid being detected while spreading them (for example, a political campaign might distribute anonymous flyers attacking the other candidate).

Workplace abuse or workplace bullying

Workplace bullying, like childhood bullying, is the tendency of individuals or groups to use persistent aggressive or unreasonable behaviour against a co-worker. Workplace bullying can include such tactics as verbal, nonverbal, psychological, physical abuse and humiliation. This type of aggression is particularly difficult because unlike the typical forms of school bullying, workplace bullies often operate within the established rules and policies of their organisation and their society. Bullying in the workplace is in the majority of cases reported as having been perpetrated by a manager and takes a wide variety of forms.

Characteristics and styles of abuse

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Some important characteristics and styles of abuse are:[92]

Telltale signs of abuse

Telltale signs may include:[93]

  1. isolation
  2. irrational jealousy
  3. subtle presence of physical violence
  4. discounting, minimising, and trivialising
  5. criticising
  6. withholding
  7. blaming.

Abusive power and control

Abusive power and control (or controlling behaviour or coercive control) is the way that abusers gain and maintain power and control over a victim for an abusive purpose such as psychological, physical, sexual, or financial abuse. The abuse can be for various reasons such as personal gain, personal gratification, psychological projection, devaluation, envy, or just for the sake of it as the abuser may simply enjoy exercising power and control.

Controlling abusers may use multiple tactics to exert power and control over their victims. The tactics themselves are psychologically and sometimes physically abusive. Control may be helped through economic abuse thus limiting the victim's actions as they may then lack the necessary resources to resist the abuse.[94] The goal of the abuser is to control and intimidate the victim or to influence them to feel that they do not have an equal voice in the relationship.[95]

Manipulators and abusers control their victims with a range of tactics, including positive reinforcement (such as praise, superficial charm, flattery, ingratiation, love bombing, smiling, gifts, attention), negative reinforcement, intermittent or partial reinforcement, psychological punishment (such as nagging, silent treatment, swearing, threats, intimidation, emotional blackmail, guilt trips, inattention) and traumatic tactics (such as verbal abuse or explosive anger).[96]

The vulnerabilities of the victim are exploited with those who are particularly vulnerable being most often selected as targets.[96][97][98] Traumatic bonding can occur between the abuser and victim as the result of ongoing cycles of abuse in which the intermittent reinforcement of reward and punishment creates powerful emotional bonds that are resistant to change and a climate of fear.[99] An attempt may be made to normalise, legitimise, rationalise, deny, or minimise the abusive behaviour, or blame the victim for it.[100][101][102]

Isolation, gaslighting, mind games, lying, disinformation, propaganda, destabilisation, brainwashing and divide and rule are other strategies that are often used. The victim may be plied with alcohol or drugs or deprived of sleep to help disorientate them.[103][104]

Certain personality types feel particularly compelled to control other people.

Psychological characteristics of abusers

[top]

In their review of data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (a longitudinal birth cohort study; n = 941) Moffitt et al.[105] report that while men exhibit more aggression overall, gender is not a reliable predictor of interpersonal aggression, including psychological aggression. The study found that whether male or female, aggressive people share a cluster of traits, including high rates of suspicion and jealousy; sudden and drastic mood swings; poor self-control; and higher than average rates of approval of violence and aggression (in American society, females are, on average, excused when violent against males). Moffitt et al. also argue that antisocial men exhibit two distinct types of interpersonal aggression (one against strangers, the other against intimate female partners), while antisocial women are rarely aggressive against anyone other than intimate male partners.

Male and female perpetrators of emotional and physical abuse exhibit high rates of personality disorders.[106][107][108] Rates of personality disorder in the general population are roughly 15%–20%, while roughly 80% of abusive men in court-ordered treatment programmes have personality disorders.[109] There are no similar statistics on female perpetrators of family violence due to bias[citation needed] in the data gathering procedure. The only statistics available are the reports on child maltreatment,[110] which show that mothers use physical discipline on children more often than fathers, while severe injury and sexual abuse are more often perpetrated by men.[111]

Abusers may aim to avoid household chores or exercise total control of family finances. Abusers can be very manipulative, often recruiting friends, law officers and court officials, even the victim's family to their side, while shifting blame to the victim.[112][113]

Effects of abuse on victims

[top]

English et al.[114] report that children whose families are characterised by interpersonal violence, including psychological aggression and verbal aggression, may exhibit a range of serious disorders, including chronic depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, dissociation and anger. Additionally, English et al. report that the impact of emotional abuse "did not differ significantly" from that of physical abuse. Johnson et al.[115] report that, in a survey of female patients (n = 825), 24% suffered emotional abuse, and this group experienced higher rates of gynaecological problems. In their study of men emotionally abused by a wife/partner (n = 116), Hines and Malley-Morrison[116] report that victims exhibit high rates of post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism.

Namie's study[117] of workplace bullying found that 31% of women and 21% of men who reported workplace bullying exhibited three key symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (hypervigilance, intrusive imagery, and avoidance behaviours). A 1998 study of male college students (n = 70) by Simonelli & Ingram[118] found that men who were emotionally abused by their female partners exhibited higher rates of chronic depression than the general population.

A study of college students (n = 80) by Goldsmith and Freyd[119] report that many who have experienced emotional abuse do not characterise the mistreatment as abusive. Additionally, Goldsmith and Freyd show that these people also tend to exhibit higher than average rates of alexithymia (difficulty identifying and processing their own emotions).

Jacobson et al.[120] found that women report markedly higher rates of fear during marital conflicts. However, a rejoinder[121] argued that Jacobson's results were invalid due to men and women's drastically differing interpretations of questionnaires. Coker et al.[122] found that the effects of mental abuse were similar whether the victim was male or female. Pimlott-Kubiak and Cortina[123] found that severity and duration of abuse were the only accurate predictors of aftereffects of abuse; sex of perpetrator or victim were not reliable predictors.

Analysis of a large survey (n = 25,876) by LaRoche[124] found that women abused by men were slightly more likely to seek psychological help than were men abused by women (63% vs. 62%).

In a 2007 study, Laurent, et al.,[125] report that psychological aggression in young couples (n = 47) is associated with decreased satisfaction for both partners: "psychological aggression may serve as an impediment to couples development because it reflects less mature coercive tactics and an inability to balance self/other needs effectively." A 2008 study by Walsh and Shulman[126] reports that psychological aggression by females is more likely to be associated with relationship dissatisfaction for both partners, while withdrawal by men is more likely to be associated with relationship dissatisfaction for both partners.

See also

[top]

Notes

  1. ^ e.g., in the case the offense of defamatory libel under the common law of England and Wales, where prior to the enactment of section 6 of the Libel Act 1843 (defense of justification for the public benefit), the truth of the defamatory statement was irrelevant, and it continues to be sufficient that it is published to the defamed person alone.
  2. ^ Economic capital, cultural capital, and social capital, according to sociologist Pierre Bourdieu[86]

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Further reading

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  • Macpherson, Michael Colin The psychology of abuse (1985) Search for this book: (Amazon | wp gwp g)

External links