브루클린에서 자라는 나무 (소설) - A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (novel)

브루클린에서 자란 나무
TreeGrowsInBrooklyn.jpg
초판
저자 베티 스미스
국가 미국
언어 영어
발행자 하퍼 앤 브라더스
발행일
1943 년
미디어 유형 인쇄 ( 양장본문고판 )
페이지 493면

브루클린에서 자라는 나무 베티 스미스가 쓴 1943 년 반 자전적 소설입니다. 이야기는 가난하지만 포부 사춘기 소녀와 그녀의 가족 생활에 초점을 맞추고 윌리엄스 버그, 브루클린 , 뉴욕시 는 20 세기의 첫 20 년간.

이 책은 엄청난 성공을 거두었습니다. 그것은 또한 출시 된 군사 에디션 , a의 크기 대량 보급판 균일 한 주머니에 맞게. 한 해양 내가 ... 자신감의 상승이 나를 휩쓸고있다 광산의 죽은 심장에서 일어난 감정적 인 반응을 설명 할 수 없다, 나는 그것이 어쩌면 사람이이 세상에서 싸울 기회를 가지고 느낌 ", 스미스에게 쓴 아무튼." [1]

이 책의 주된 은유는 강건한 천국의 나무로 도심에서도 계속 성장하고 번영하는 능력은 자신을 개선하려는 주인공의 열망을 반영합니다.

음모

소설은 다섯 개의 "책"으로 나뉘며, 각각은 캐릭터의 삶의 다른시기를 다룹니다.

책 하나

Book One opens in 1912 and introduces 11-year-old Francie Nolan, who lives in the Williamsburg tenement neighborhood of Brooklyn with her 10-year-old brother Cornelius ("Neeley" for short) and their parents, Johnny and Katie. Francie relies on her imagination and her love of reading to provide a temporary escape from the poverty that defines her daily existence. The family subsists on Katie's wages from cleaning apartment buildings, pennies from the children's junk-selling and odd jobs, and Johnny's irregular earnings as a singing waiter. His alcoholism has made it difficult for him to hold a steady job, and he sees himself as a disappointment to his family as a result. Francie admires him because he is handsome, talented, imaginative, and sentimental, as she is. Katie has very little time for sentiment, since she is the breadwinner of the family who has forsaken fantasies and dreams for survival.

Book Two

Book Two jumps back to 1900, with the meeting of Johnny and Katie, the teenage children of immigrants from Ireland and Austria, respectively. Although Johnny panics and begins drinking heavily when Katie becomes pregnant with first Francie and then Neeley, Katie resolves to give her children a better life than she has known, resolving to follow her mother's insistence that they receive a good education. Kate resents Francie because the baby is constantly ill, while Neeley is more robust. Katie makes a promise to herself that her daughter must never learn of her preference for Neeley. During the first seven years of their marriage, the Nolans are forced to move twice within Williamsburg, due to public disgraces caused first by Johnny's drunkenness and later by the children's Aunt Sissy's misguided efforts at babysitting them. The Nolans then arrive at the apartment introduced in Book One.

Book Three

제 3 권에서 놀 런스는 그들의 새로운 가정에 정착, 일곱 살짜리 프랑스와 여섯 살짜리 닐리는 누추한, 과밀 공립학교 옆집에 참석하기 시작합니다. Francie는 이러한 음울한 환경에서도 배우는 것을 즐기고 Johnny의 지원으로 다른 동네의 더 나은 학교로 편입됩니다. 아이들의 마음을 개선하려는 조니의 시도는 실패하지만, 케이티는 프랜시가 한 사람으로 성장하도록 돕고 14 세가되기 직전에 프랜시를 공격하려는 아동 강간범 / 살인범을 쏘아 그녀의 생명을 구합니다. Johnny는 Katie가 다시 임신했다는 사실을 알게되었을 때 우울증에 빠져 알코올 중독으로 인한 폐렴으로 사망합니다.1915 년 크리스마스. Katie는 Johnny와 아이들에 대한 가족의 생명 보험 증권을 현금화하고 방과 후 직장에서 얻은 수입과 함께 그 돈을 사용하여 Johnny를 묻고 1916 년에 가족을 떠있게합니다. 새로 태어난 아기 Annie Laurie , 그해 5 월에 태어나, Francie는 6 월에 초등학교를 졸업합니다. 졸업을 통해 Francie는 마침내 아버지의 죽음의 현실을 이해하게됩니다.

4 권

At the start of Book Four, Francie and Neeley take jobs because there is no money to send them to high school. Francie works in an artificial flower factory, then gets a better-paying job in a press clipping office after lying about her age. Although she wants to use her salary to start high school in the fall, Katie decides to send Neeley instead, reasoning that he will only continue learning if he is forced into it, while Francie will find a way to do it on her own. Once the United States enters World War I in 1917, the clipping office rapidly declines and closes, leaving Francie out of a job. After she finds work as a teletype operator, she makes a new plan for her education, choosing to skip high school and take summer college-level courses. She passes with the help of Ben Blake, a friendly and determined high school student, but she fails the college's entrance exams. A brief encounter with Lee Rhynor, a soldier preparing to ship out to France, leads to heartbreak after he pretends to be in love with Francie, when he is in fact about to get married. In 1918, Katie accepts a marriage proposal from Michael McShane, a retired police officer who has long admired her and has become a wealthy businessman and politician since leaving the force.

Book Five

As Book Five begins in the fall of this same year, Francie, now almost 17, quits her teletype job. She is about to start classes at the University of Michigan벤의 도움으로 입학 시험을 통과 한, 그와 함께 미래 관계의 가능성을 고려하고있다. Nolans는 Katie의 결혼식과 Brooklyn 아파트에서 McShane의 집으로 이사 할 준비를합니다. 프랑스는 그녀가 좋아하는 어린 시절의 장소 중 일부에 마지막으로 방문을 지불하고 와서 그녀의 삶에 갔다 모든 사람에 반영합니다. 그녀는 재능있는 재즈 / 래그 타임 피아노 연주자가되었다있는 방법 조니의 문자 생활의 많은 닐리의에 강타된다. 그녀가 아파트를 떠나기 전에, 프랑스는 통지 성장과의 역경을 극복하고 번영하기 위해 그녀의 가족의 능력에 대한 은유를보고, 그것을 파괴하기 위해 모든 노력에도 불구하고 건물의 마당에 - 싹이 다시 천국의 나무. 이웃 소녀 Florry의 습관에서 Francie는 자신의 젊은 모습을 본다. 책을 들고 화재 대피소에 앉아 이웃의 젊은 여성들이 데이트를 준비하는 모습을 지켜 봅니다. Francie는 Florry에게 "Hello, Francie"라고 말한 다음 창을 닫으면서 "Goodbye, Francie"라고 말합니다.

캐릭터

메리 프랜시스 "프랑시"놀란주인공입니다. 소설은 Francie가 11 살 때 시작됩니다. 소설의 나머지 부분은 그녀가 17 세에 대학에 입학 할 때까지의 프랜시의 삶에 대해 알려줍니다. 프랜시는 20 세기 초 브루클린에서 자랐습니다. 그녀의 가족은 소설의 대부분을 통하여 지속적인 빈곤에 있습니다. 프랑스의 주가는 그녀가 믿는 그녀의 어머니와 자신의 유사한 특성을 인식 케이티 놀란 근면 그녀의 어머니와 함께 개선 된 관계에 대한 그녀의 아버지, 조니 놀란, 그리고 소원, 대한 절찬 진정한 이해에 장벽입니다. AN, 공격적인 개인주의, 로맨틱, 민족 가족과 이웃에서 성장하면서 프랑스의 이야기는 그녀의 개인의 욕망, 애정, 그리고 적대 행위를 추적; 보다 보편적으로 그것은 20 세기 초 이민자들이 자녀를 통해 빈곤을 극복하고자하는 희망을 나타냅니다. 누구가 "교육"을 받고 진정한 미국인들 사이에서 자신의 자리를 차지할 바랍니다. Francie는 가장 가능성이 낮은 도시 환경에서 번성하는 "천국의 나무"로 상징됩니다.

케이티 롬멜 리 놀란 is Francie's mother and the youngest of her parents' four daughters. She is a first-generation immigrant with an evil father and an angelic mother who emigrated from Austria. She married Johnny Nolan when she was only 17 years old. Katie is a hardworking, practical woman whose youthful romanticism has been replaced by a frigid realism that often prevents her from sympathizing with those who love her most. She runs her home in such a way that her children are able to enjoy their childhood despite their extreme poverty. Because Johnny is an alcoholic and can rarely hold down a job, Katie becomes the family breadwinner by cleaning apartment buildings. Johnny, however, is more attuned to Francie's hopes of graduating from high school and becoming a writer. As Francie matures and develops an inclination toward academia, Katie realizes she is more devoted to Neeley than to Francie. Katie becomes pregnant just before Johnny dies and survives on her own until she agrees to marry Sergeant Michael McShane, a pipe-smoking local policeman-turned-politician.

시시 롬멜 리 is Katie's oldest sister and one of Francie's three aunts. Because of her parents' immigration and lack of knowledge in their new environment, Sissy never goes to school and is therefore illiterate. Sissy is kind, compassionate and beautiful, and many men fall in love with her. She is first married at 14, but after being unable to have any live children with her husband, Sissy leaves him. She marries two more times without ever getting a divorce. In between marriages, Sissy has a number of lovers. She calls each of her husbands and lovers by the name "John" until her final husband, who insists that she properly divorce her second husband and demands to be called by his own name, Steve. Sissy has ten stillborn children, but adopts an immigrant girl's baby daughter born out of wedlock and eventually gives birth to a healthy son of her own.

Johnny Nolan is Francie's father. He is a first-generation American; his parents immigrated from Ireland. He has a protective mother and had three brothers, all of whom died young. Johnny marries Katie Rommely at nineteen. He is charismatic, a loving husband and father, loved dearly by his family but especially by Francie. He is, however, an alcoholic. When he does hold a job, Johnny works as a singing waiter. He has a beautiful voice, a talent that is greatly admired but that is largely wasted because of his reputation as an alcoholic. After Katie tells him that she is pregnant with their third child, he stops drinking and immediately falls into a deep depression that ends with his death from alcoholism-induced pneumonia. He is a dreamer, in sharp contrast to Katie, whose view of the world is realistic.

Cornelius "Neeley" Nolan is Francie's little brother. He is a year younger than Francie and is favored by his mother, Katie. Neeley is an outgoing child who is more widely accepted by the neighborhood children than Francie. He shows more emotion when his father dies than Francie, who reacts to the loss by becoming even more determined to get an education and rise above her mother's limited vision. Neeley refuses to follow the tradition of Nolan men and determines to never become an alcoholic. Like Francie, he feels that their childhood was pleasant despite their poverty.

Eva "Evy"Rommely Flittman 은 Katie의 막내 여동생이자 Francie의 다른 이모이며 Sissy보다 더 작은 역할을 수행합니다. 대부분의 소설에서 Katie보다 덜 위험한 상황으로 간주되는 Evy는 우유 마차 운전사 인 게으른 남편 Willie와 어려움을 겪습니다. Willie가 부상을 입었을 때 Evy는 대신 경로를 운전하고 Willie보다 훨씬 더 친절하게 말을 대하며 놀랍도록 잘합니다. 소설의 끝에서 그는 1 인 밴드로 여행하기 위해 그녀를 떠나고 그녀는 남편없이 계속됩니다. 맥 셰인은 결혼 선물로 케이티에게 $ 1,000 줄 때, 그녀는 윌리의 생명 보험의 Evy-값에 $ 200에 전달합니다. Sissy와 달리 Evy는 결혼이 한 번 뿐이며 난잡한 것으로 간주되지 않습니다. 그녀에게는 세 자녀, 한 소녀 (Blossom)가 있습니다.

Eliza Rommely is Francie's third aunt who is only mentioned once. She became a nun because of her mother's love of the Catholic church. Francie only met her once. At first Francie toyed with the idea of being a nun, but when she saw her aunt's mustache-like facial hair, she thought that happened to all nuns, and changed her mind.

ThomasMary Rommely 는 Sissy, Eliza, Evy 및 Katie의 부모입니다. 그들은 시시가 태어나 기 직전에 오스트리아에서 미국으로 이주합니다. Thomas는 미국을 미워하고 Mary를 괴롭히는 것을 좋아하며 집에서 영어로 말하는 것을 금지하는 동안 Mary는 인내심을 가지고 어려움을 견디며 딸을위한 도덕적 / 실용적 가이드 역할을합니다. Mary는 영어를 읽거나 쓸 수 없지만 Katie에게 자녀가 언어를 배우도록하고 언젠가 땅을 살 수 있도록 돈을 저축하기 시작하도록 격려합니다. Rommelys의 두 번째 큰 딸인 Eliza는 간단히 언급됩니다. 그녀는 수녀가되어 수녀원에 들어간다.

Flossie Gaddis is one of the Nolans' neighbors, a single woman who scares men away as she constantly looks for new relationships. She keeps her right arm covered at all times to hide scars from a childhood accident with a tub of scalding water. She has a brother, Henny, who is dying of tuberculosis.

Lee Rhynor is Francie's first love, a soldier on leave who tries to manipulate Francie into sleeping with him after he wins over her heart. When Francie refuses, he goes back to his fiancee.

Ben Blake is a boy Francie befriends during her first summer of college classes. Ben is driven and determined. While he is the object of Francie's affection at first, she feels differently after falling in love with Lee. However, at the end of the novel, Francie goes to college with a promise ring from Ben and hope of a future with him.

Themes

Although the book addresses many different issues—poverty, alcoholism, lying, etc.—its main theme is the need for tenacity: the determination to rise above difficult circumstances. Although there are naturalistic elements in the book, it is not fundamentally naturalistic. The Nolans are financially restricted by poverty yet find ways to enjoy life and satisfy their needs and wants. For example, Francie can become intoxicated just by looking at flowers. Like the Tree of Heaven, Brooklyn's inhabitants fight for the sun and air necessary to their survival.

Idealism and pragmatism are weighed and both found necessary to survival in Brooklyn. Johnny lies about his family's address in order to enable Francie to attend a better school, presenting Francie with opportunities that might not have been available to her otherwise. Sissy helps Johnny recover from alcoholic withdrawals by appealing to his libido, helping Katie and Johnny to stay together despite Johnny's disease. Katie explains love and sexuality to Francie from two somewhat clashing points of view: as a mother and as a woman. The book revises traditional notions of right and wrong and suggests pointedly that extreme poverty changes the criteria on which such notions, and those who embrace them, should be judged.

Gender roles are more fluid in A Tree than in previous novels about young people. Katie's hands grow rough as she performs physical labor while Johnny's hands remain smooth and he wears expensive clothing. Francie does not fully begin to realize her own femininity until she can prove useful to her mother in childbirth. As Francie discovers her desire for companionship, she begins to understand the injustices women are often forced to endure when pregnant out of wedlock.

Other issues the book addresses include:

  • Man vs. his environment
  • Education
  • Coming of age/loss of innocence
  • Family
  • Exploitation
  • Love
  • Poverty
  • The American Dream
  • Human Life/What it means to be human

Adaptations

Pop culture references

Cartoons and animated film shorts

Literature

  • 이 책은 가장 인기있는 중 하나였다 군사 에디션 차 세계 대전 동안 무료로 미국의 군사 서비스 요원에게 제공되는 책. [5] 스미스는 그녀가 민간인에서보다 그녀가 군인에서 열 배 더 많은 팬 메일을 받았다고 말했다. [6] 이 책은 원래 D-117 시리즈 (~ 50,000 부)로 인쇄되었습니다. [7] [8] [9] 소설에 대한 수요가 너무 높아서 K-28로 재 인쇄되었습니다. [9] [10]
  • 의 주인공 유리제 성 독서 성장을 참조한다 브루클린에 나무를 재배 하고 프랑스 놀란의 캐릭터에 영감을 발견.

음악

Radio

On October 7, 1947 Studio One on CBS aired A Tree Grows in Brooklyn starring Rosemary Rice as Francie.

Television

  • In the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers, episode 9 ("Why We Fight"), Frank Perconte is seen reading the book while on guard duty in Germany, during World War II.
  • Batman, season 2, episode 13, featuring the villain Egghead, is titled "An Egg Grows in Gotham".
  • Daria, season 4, episode 3 is named "A Tree Grows In Lawndale".
  • In season 1, episode 17 of I Love Lucy, Lucy schemes to get her husband, Ricky, into a play she wrote called "A Tree Grows in Havana", referring to Ricky's homeland of Cuba.
  • A Super Grover segment in Sesame Street, episode #4224 takes place "where two trees grow in Brooklyn."
  • Ugly Betty, season 1, episode 22 is named "A Tree Grows in Guadalajara".
  • In episode 17 of the documentary series The World at War, a soldier can be seen reading the book in archival footage of soldiers preparing for the D-Day invasion of Normandy.
  • Will and Grace, Series 1, Episode 2. Will notices a tree outside Grace's new apartment in Brooklyn. Grace - "See, trees really do grow here!"
  • Gossip Girl, Season 5, Episode 20. Blair refuses to volunteer at a community garden, telling Dan - “Just because a tree grows in Brooklyn, doesn’t mean I have to be the one planting it”
  • Morning Show, Season 1, Episode 7

See also

References

  1. ^ The Wall Street Journal, October 6, 2018, pg. C14.
  2. ^ https://www.lambiek.net/artists/p/prince_wm.htm
  3. ^ Roberts, Jerry (5 June 2009). Encyclopedia of Television Film Directors. Scarecrow Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-8108-6378-1.
  4. ^ "A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1974)". BFI. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  5. ^ N.P.R. Staff. "WWII By The Books: The Pocket-Size Editions That Kept Soldiers Reading". NPR.org. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
  6. ^ Giaimo, Cara. "How Books Designed for Soldiers' Pockets Changed Publishing Forever". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  7. ^ "Armed Services Editions - James M. Dourgarian, Bookman - Collectable & Rare Books". www.jimbooks.com. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
  8. ^ "Armed Services Editions: A Few Square Inches of Home | HistoryNet". HistoryNet. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
  9. ^ a b Editions for the Armed Services, Inc.: a history : together with the complete list of 1324 books published for American armed forces overseas. New York: Editions for the Armed Services, Inc. hdl:2027/uc1.b4162609.
  10. "20 세기 미국 베스트셀러" . unsworth.unet.brandeis.edu . 2016 년 4 월 22 일 에 원본 문서 에서 보존 된 문서 . 만회 2016년 4월 13일을 .

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