인도로가는 길 - A Passage to India

인도로가는 길
APassageToIndia.jpg
초판 (영국)
저자 EM Forster
국가 영국
언어 영어
발행자 Edward Arnold , (영국)
Harcourt Brace (미국)
발행일
1924 년 6 월 4 일
미디어 유형 인쇄 (양장본 및 문고판)
OCLC 59352597

인도로가는 길 (1924)은 영국 작가 EM Forster 의 소설로1920 년대 영국 Raj 인도 독립 운동배경으로한 소설입니다. 현대 도서관 [1] 이 선정한 20 세기 영문학 100 대 작품 중 하나로 선정되었으며1924 년 제임스 타이트 블랙 기념 소설 수상 했습니다. [2] 시차 잡지 는 '전체 100 소설 "목록에 신규 포함. [3] 이 소설은 인도에서의 Forster의 경험을 바탕으로하며, 월트 휘트먼 의 1870 년 시인 "인도의 길"에서 제목을 따온 것 입니다 .[4] [5]

이 이야기는 Aziz 박사, 그의 영국 친구 Mr. Cyril Fielding, Mrs. Moore, Miss Adela Quested라는 네 캐릭터를 중심으로 전개됩니다. 가상 여행하는 동안 Marabar 동굴 합니다 (모델로 Barabar 동굴 Bihar의), [6] 아델라는 그녀가 동굴 중 하나 (사실 그는 완전히 다른 동굴에있을 때), 그리고 박사 아지즈 혼자 자신을 발견 생각 이후에 당황하고 달아납니다. 아지즈 박사가 그녀를 공격하려 한 것으로 추정됩니다. 아지즈의 재판과 그에 따른 추격과 여파는 인도인과 인도를 통치하는 영국인 사이의 공통적 인 인종적 긴장과 편견을 끓입니다.

줄거리 요약

도착

영국의 젊은 여학생 인 Adela Quested와 그녀의 연로 한 친구 인 Mrs. Moore가 가상의 도시인 영국 인도 Chandrapore를 방문합니다 . Adela는 그녀가 Moore 부인의 아들 Ronny Heaslop,시 행정관과 결혼 할 것인지 결정해야합니다.

한편 젊은 인도 무슬림 의사 인 Dr. Aziz 는 인도인 친구 두 명과 식사를하며 영국인의 친구가 될 수 있는지에 대해 이야기하고 있습니다. 식사 중에 아지즈의 불쾌한 병원 상사 칼렌다 르 소령으로부터 소환장이 도착합니다. 아지즈는 주문으로는 Callendar의 방갈로에 서둘러 만 찾는 타이어 어려움으로 지연 통가 와 주요 이미 발끈 남아있다.

분리, Aziz는 기차역을 향해 길을 걸어갑니다. 그가 가장 좋아하는 모스크를 보았을 때 그는 충동 적으로 들어간다. 그는 그곳에서 이상한 영국인 여성을보고 그녀에게이 신성한 장소를 모독하지 말라고 소리 친다. 무어 부인은 원주민 관습을 존중합니다. 이것은 Aziz를 무장 해제하고 두 사람은 친구가되어 채팅을합니다.

Mrs. Moore returns to the British club down the road and relates her experience at the mosque. Ronny Heaslop, her son, initially thinks she is talking about an Englishman and becomes indignant when he learns the facts. Adela, however, is intrigued.

Bridge Party

Because the newcomers had expressed a desire to see Indians, Mr. Turton, the city tax collector, invites numerous Indian gentlemen to a party at his house. The party turns out to be an awkward event, due to the Indians' timidity and the Britons' bigotry, but Adela meets Cyril Fielding, principal of Chandrapore's government-run college for Indians. Fielding invites Adela and Mrs. Moore to a tea party with him and a Hindu-Brahmin professor named Narayan Godbole. At Adela's request, he extends his invitation to Dr. Aziz.

Fielding's tea party

At Fielding's tea party, everyone has a good time conversing about India, and Fielding and Aziz become friends. Aziz promises to take Mrs. Moore and Adela to see the Marabar Caves, a distant cave complex. Ronny Heaslop arrives, and finding Adela "unaccompanied" with Dr. Aziz and Professor Godbole, rudely breaks up the party.

Aziz mistakenly believes that the women are offended that he has not followed through on his promise and arranges an outing to the caves at great expense to himself. Fielding and Godbole are supposed to accompany the expedition, but they miss the train.

Marabar Caves

Aziz and the women explore the caves. In the first cave, Mrs. Moore is overcome with claustrophobia. But worse than the claustrophobia is the echo. Disturbed by the sound, Mrs. Moore declines to continue exploring. Adela and Aziz, accompanied by a guide, climb to the upper caves.

Adela's illusion

As Aziz helps Adela up the hill, she asks whether he has more than one wife. Disconcerted by the bluntness of the remark, he ducks into a cave to compose himself. When he comes out, he finds the guide alone outside the caves. The guide says Adela has gone into a cave by herself. Aziz looks for her in vain. Deciding she is lost, he strikes the guide, who runs away. Aziz looks around and discovers Adela's field glasses lying broken on the ground. He puts them in his pocket.

Aziz then looks down the hill and sees Adela speaking to another young Englishwoman, Miss Derek, who has arrived with Fielding in a car. Aziz runs down the hill and greets Fielding, but Miss Derek and Adela drive off without explanation. Fielding, Mrs. Moore, and Aziz return to Chandrapore on the train. Adela has injured herself while descending from the caves.

Aziz's arrest

At the train station, Aziz is arrested and charged with sexually assaulting Adela in a cave. The run-up to his trial releases the racial tensions between the British and the Indians. Adela says that Aziz followed her into the cave and tried to grab her, and that she fended him off by swinging her field glasses at him. The only evidence the British have is the field glasses in the possession of Aziz. Despite this, the British colonists believe that Aziz is guilty. They are stunned when Fielding proclaims his belief in Aziz's innocence. Fielding is ostracised and condemned as a blood-traitor. But the Indians, who consider the assault allegation a fraud, welcome him.

Moore mystery

During the weeks before the trial, Mrs. Moore is apathetic and irritable. Although she professes her belief in Aziz's innocence, she does nothing to help him. Ronny, alarmed by his mother's assertion that Aziz is innocent, arranges for her return by ship to England before she can testify at the trial. Mrs. Moore dies during the voyage. Her absence from India becomes a major issue at the trial, where Aziz's legal defenders assert that her testimony would have proven the accused's innocence.

Mrs. Moore becomes more concerned with her own end of life issues as she feels her health failing. Her relationship with her son allows her to be distracted and less sympathetic to Aziz's situation.[7]

Trial scene

Adela becomes confused as to Aziz's guilt. At the trial, she is asked whether Aziz sexually assaulted her. She has a vision of the cave, and it turns out that Adela had, while in the cave, received a shock similar to Mrs. Moore's. The echo had disconcerted her so much that she became unhinged. At the time, Adela mistakenly interpreted her shock as an assault by Aziz. She admits that she was mistaken, and the case is dismissed.

(In the 1913 draft of the novel, E. M. Forster had Aziz guilty of the assault and found guilty in the court; he changed this in the 1924 draft to create a more ambiguous ending.)[citation needed]

Aftermath

Ronny Heaslop breaks off his engagement to Adela and she stays at Fielding's house until her passage on a boat to England is arranged. After explaining to Fielding that the echo was the cause of the whole business, she departs India, never to return.

Although he is vindicated, Aziz is angry that Fielding befriended Adela after she nearly ruined his life. Believing it to be the gentlemanly thing to do, Fielding convinces Aziz not to seek monetary redress from her. The men's friendship suffers, and Fielding departs for England. Aziz believes that he is leaving to marry Adela for her money. Bitter at his friend's perceived betrayal, he vows never again to befriend a white person. Aziz moves to the Hindu-ruled state of Mau and begins a new life.

At Mau

Two years later, Fielding returns to India. His wife is Stella, Mrs. Moore's daughter from a second marriage. Aziz, now the Raja's chief physician, comes to respect and love Fielding again. However, he does not give up his dream of a free and united India. In the novel's last sentences, he explains that he and Fielding cannot be friends until India is free of the British Raj.

Literary criticism

The nature of critiques of A Passage to India is largely based upon the era of writing and the nature of the critical work. While many earlier critiques found that Forster's book showed an inappropriate friendship between colonizers and the colonized, new critiques on the work draw attention to the sexism, racism and imperialism inherent in the text.

Reviews of A Passage to India when it was first published challenged specific details and attitudes included in the book that Forster drew from his own time in India.[8] Early critics also expressed concern at the interracial camaraderie between Aziz and Fielding in the book.[9] Others saw the book as a vilification of humanist perspectives on the importance of interpersonal relationships, and the damage colonialism wrought on society.[10] More recent critiques by postcolonial theorists and literary critics have reinvestigated the text as a work of Orientalist유럽인의 식민지 관계에 대한 담론에 기여한 소설. 오늘날과 같은 다른 책 중 탈식민 동양 담론의 정액 텍스트 중 하나입니다 어둠의 심장 에 의해 조셉 콘래드 , 그리고 의한 러 디어 드 키플링 . [8]

A Passage to India emerged at a time where portrayals of India as a savage, disorganized land in need of domination were more popular in mainstream European literature than romanticized depictions. Forster's novel departed from typical narratives about colonizer-colonized relationships and emphasized a more "unknowable" Orient, rather than characterizing it with exoticism, ancient wisdom and mystery. Postcolonial theorists like Maryam Wasif Khan have termed this novel a Modern Orientalist text, meaning that it portrays the Orient in an optimistic, positive light while simultaneously challenging and critiquing European culture and society.[11]그러나 Benita Parry는 "세속적 인 것이 스캔되고 인도의 오랜 전통의 수학, 과학 및 기술, 역사, 언어학 및 법리학이 존재하지 않는 난독 화 된 영역"을 만들어 인도를 신비화한다고 제안합니다. [10]

One of the most notable critiques comes from literary professor Edward Said, who referenced A Passage to India in both Culture and Imperialism and Orientalism. In his discussion about allusions to the British empire in early 20th century novels, Said suggests that though the work did subvert typical views of colonization and colonial rule in India, it also fell short of outright condemning either nationalist movements in India or imperialism. Of Forster's attitude toward colonizer-colonized relationships, Said says Forster:

. . . found a way to use the mechanism of the novel to elaborate on the already existing structure of attitude and reference without changing it. This structure permitted one to feel affection for and even intimacy with some Indians and India generally, but made one see Indian politics as the charge of the British, and culturally refused a privilege to India nationalism.[12]

Stereotyping and Orientalist thought is also explored in postcolonial critiques. Said suggests that Forster deals with the question of British-India relationships by separating Muslims and Hindus in the narrative. He says Forster connects Islam to Western values and attitudes while suggesting that Hinduism is chaotic and orderless, and subsequently uses Hindu characters as the background to the main narrative.[12]그는 또한 아지즈와 필딩 사이의 우정에 대한 실패한 시도를 동양과 서양 사이의 인식 된 문화적 거리의 강화로 식별합니다. 두 사람이 의미있는 우정을 시작하지 못하는 것은 사이드가 제안한 것은 동양의 화해 할 수없는 타자 성, 서양에서 유래 한 것, 동양을 이해하는 방식에있어 서양 독자를 제한하는 것을 나타낸다. [13]

다른 학자들은이 책을 비판적인 탈식민주의와 페미니스트의 관점으로 조사했습니다. Maryam Wasif Khan이 책을 읽은 것은 A Passage to India 가 성별에 대한 논평이자 식민지 프로젝트 내에서 영국 여성의 위치 임을 시사 합니다. 그녀는 여성 캐릭터가 Englishwomen 집에서 자신의 사회적 역할 사이의 불화를 대표하는 영국의 사회적 역할의 무료 휴식 "동양"에 오는 것을 주장하고, 개척 "의 이야기를 알려줍니다 그 긴급 페미니즘의 형태와 음성을 발견 Englishwomen 식민지". [14]

Sara Suleri 는 또한 책의 동양 주의적 경향과 급진적 신체의 사용, 특히 Aziz의 경우 개인이 아닌 성적 대상으로 사용하는 것에 대해 비판했습니다. [15]

문자 목록

박사 아지즈
A young Muslim Indian physician who works at the British hospital in Chandrapore, which is said[by whom?] to have been based on the city of Bankipur, a suburb of Patna in the state of Bihar. He relies heavily on intuition over logic, and he is more emotional than his best friend, Fielding. He makes friends easily and seems quite garrulous at times. His chief drawback is an inability to view a situation without emotion, which Forster suggests is a typical Indian difficulty. Aziz seems to possess a profound love for his late wife but only thinks of her intermittently. Initially he is somewhat indifferent to the British colonists, but comes to resent them after his treatment during the trial.
Cyril Fielding
인도인을위한 작은 정부 운영 대학의 45 세 미혼 영국인 교장. 필딩의 논리적 서양 마음은 인도의 혼란 (또는 신비를) 이해할 수 없다, 그러나 그는 매우 관대 인디언 대한 존중이다. 그는 아지즈 박사와 친구가되지만 문화적, 인종적 차이와 개인적인 오해가 그들을 분리시킵니다.
아델라 퀘스 테드
Ronny Heaslop과 결혼하려는 모호한 의도로 인도를 방문하는 젊은 영국 여교사. 영리하고 용감하며 정직하지만 약간 신중한 그녀는 필딩이 " 프리그 "라고 부르는 것 입니다. 그녀는 실제 인도를 볼 의도로 도착합니다. 그러나 Marabar 동굴 무서운 여행 후, 그녀는 거짓 성적으로 그녀를 폭행의 아지즈을 비난.
무어 부인
로니 Heaslop의 노인, 사려 깊은 어머니. 그녀는 아델라 퀘스 테드에 그녀의 아들의 참여를 감독하기 위해 Chandrapore를 방문한다. 그녀는 인디언과 그들의 관습을 존중하며 소설 속 인디언들은 다른 영국인보다 그녀를 더 높이 평가합니다. 아델라의 유사한 경험을받은 후, 그녀는 냉담하고 쓴된다.
로니 헤 슬롭
찬드라 포어의 영국시 행정관. 나쁜 사람은 아니지만, 그는 식민지 동료들의 인디언에 대한 인종 차별적 견해를 공유합니다. 그녀는 아지즈에 대한 그녀의 비난를 후퇴 후 그는 아델라 그의 참여를 끊어진다. 그는 그녀의 철회를 인종의 배신으로 간주합니다. Adela는 또한 공개 법정에서 그녀가 더 이상 그를 사랑하지 않는다고 말합니다.
나라 얀 고드 볼레 교수
An elderly, courteous, contemplative Brahmin who views the world with equanimity. He remains totally aloof from the novel's conflicts. He remains a mystery to the end, when he rehabilitates the friendship of Fielding and Aziz.
Mr. Turton
The British city collector of Chandrapore. He does not hate Indians, for that would be to negate his life's work. Nevertheless, he is fiercely loyal to his race, reviles less bigoted people like Fielding, and regards natives with thinly veiled contempt.
Mrs. Turton
Mr. Turton's wife. Openly racist, snobbish, and rude toward Indians and those Europeans who are different, she screams at Adela in the courtroom when the latter retracts her accusation against Aziz.
Maj. Callendar
The British head doctor and Aziz's superior at the hospital. He is more openly racist than any other male character. Rumours circulate among Indians that Callendar actually tortured an injured Indian by putting pepper instead of antiseptic on his wounds.
Mr. McBryde
The British superintendent of police in Chandrapore. Like Mr. Turton, he considers dark-skinned races inferior to light-skinned ones. During Aziz's trial, he publicly asserts that it is a scientific fact that dark men lust after white women. Nevertheless, he is more tolerant of Indians than most Britons, and he is on friendly terms with Fielding.
Miss Derek
힌두교 왕실에 고용 된 영국 여성 . 그녀는 자주 차를 빌리고 그들의 허락을 구하거나 제 시간에 반납하는 데 어려움을 겪지 않습니다. 그녀는 너무 시끄럽고 그녀의 동포 '취향의 대부분을 태평이다. 그녀는 McBryde와 관계가있다.
나와 브 바하 두르
무슬림 찬드라 포르의 인도 신사. 부유 (그가 차를 소유)하고 관대, 그는 (그가 로니 Heaslop에 자신의 차를 빌려 준다) 영국에 충성입니다. 그러나 재판 후, 그는 "자신의 제목 포기 nawab 영국 일반에 찬성하여, 그에게 수여", "씨 Zulfiqar을."
하미 둘라
Aziz's uncle and friend. Educated in law at Cambridge University, he declares at the beginning of the novel that it is easier to be a friend of an Englishman in England than in India. Aziz comes to agree with him.
Amritrao
A prominent Indian lawyer from Calcutta, called in to defend Aziz. He is known for his strong anti-British sentiment. He takes the case for political reasons and becomes disgusted when the case evaporates in court.
Mahmoud Ali
A Muslim Indian barrister who openly hates the British.
Dr. Panna Lal
A low-born Hindu doctor and Aziz's rival at the hospital.
Ralph Moore
A timid, sensitive and discerning youth, the second son of Mrs. Moore.
Stella Moore
Mrs. Moore's daughter and, later, Fielding's beautiful younger wife.

Awards

Adaptations

Manuscript

In 1960, the manuscript of A Passage to India was donated to Rupert Hart-Davis by Forster and sold to raise money for the London Library, fetching the then record sum of £6,500 for a modern English manuscript.[22]

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Fiction winners Award winners". The University of Edinburgh. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 2015-01-08.
  3. ^ "All Time 100 Novels". Time. 16 October 2005. Archived from the original on 13 March 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  4. ^ Sarker, Sunil Kumar (1 January 2007). A Companion to E.M. Forster. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 702. ISBN 978-81-269-0750-2. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  5. ^ Kummings, Donald D. (19 October 2009). A Companion to Walt Whitman. John Wiley & Sons. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-4051-9551-5. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  6. ^ Sarker, Sunil Kumar (1 January 2007). A Companion to E.M. Forster. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 708. ISBN 978-81-269-0750-2. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  7. ^ The tombstone; her attack in the cave; comments to Ronny regarding things she needed to attend to; all play out in her death at sea.
  8. ^ a b "The mystery and muddle of A Passage to India". The British Library. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  9. ^ Parry, Benita (1998). Delusions and discoveries : India in the British imagination, 1880-1930. London: Verso. p. 280. ISBN 1859841287. OCLC 40922011.
  10. ^ a b Parry, Benita (2004). Postcolonial Studies: A Materialist Critique. New York: Routledge. pp. 163. ISBN 0-203-42053-5.
  11. ^ Khan, Maryam Wasif (22 June 2016). "Enlightenment Orientalism to Modernist Orientalism: The Archive of Forster's A Passage to India". MFS Modern Fiction Studies. 62 (2): 217–235. doi:10.1353/mfs.2016.0027. ISSN 1080-658X.
  12. ^ a b Said, Edward W. (1994). Culture and imperialism (1st Vintage books ed.). New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0679750541. OCLC 29600508.
  13. ^ Said, Edward W. (1979) [1978]. Orientalism (1st ed.). New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 039474067X. OCLC 4831769.
  14. ^ Khan, Maryam Wasif (22 June 2016). "Enlightenment Orientalism to Modernist Orientalism: The Archive of Forster's A Passage to India". MFS Modern Fiction Studies. 62 (2): 230–233. doi:10.1353/mfs.2016.0027. ISSN 1080-658X.
  15. ^ Suleri Goodyear, Sara (1992). The rhetoric of English India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 132–135. ISBN 9780226779836. OCLC 23584165.
  16. ^ "A Passage to India". Internet Broadway Database. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  17. ^ Angelini, Sergio (2003–2014). "Passage to India, A (1965)". BFI Screenonline. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  18. ^ Wallia, C. J. "IndiaStar book review: Satyajit Ray by Surabhi Banerjee". IndiaStar. Archived from the original on 19 February 1997. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  19. ^ "A Passage to India". Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  20. ^ "Shared Experience Take Forster Passage to India". What'sOnStage. 30 August 2002. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  21. ^ Isherwood, Charles (4 November 2004). "A Minimal Meeting of Forster's Twain". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  22. ^ Hart-Davis, Rupert: Halfway to Heaven p55, Sutton Publishing Ltd, Stroud, 1998. ISBN 0-7509-1837-3
  • S. M. Chanda: A Passage to India: a close look in studies in literature (Atlantic Publishers, New Delhi 2003)

External links