1990 년대 음악 - 1990s in music

1990 년대 대중 음악 은 1970 년대와 1980 년대에 등장한 십대 팝 댄스 팝 트렌드가계속되는 것을 보았습니다. 또한 힙합 은 장르의 황금기 가 계속됨에 따라 10 년 동안 성장하고 계속해서 큰 성공을 거두었습니다. 이외에도에서 , 레게 , 현대 R & B 도시 일반적으로 음악은 십년에 걸쳐 매우 인기가 남아 있었다; 후반 1980 년대와 1990 년대의 도시 음악은 종종 같은 스타일을 혼합 영혼 , 펑크 재즈 의 결과로, 융합 장르뉴잭 스윙 , 네오 소울 , 힙합 소울 , 지 펑크 가 인기를 끌었다.

1980 년대와 마찬가지로 록 음악도 1990 년대에 매우 인기가 있었지만, 당시의 새로운 물결글램 메탈이 지배적 인 장면 는 달리 그런지 , [1] Britpop , 인더스트리얼 록 및 기타 얼터너티브 록 음악이 등장하여 펑크락 , 스카 펑크 , 누 메탈10 년 동안 가장 인기있는 음악으로 수년 동안 다양한 지점에서 높은 수준의 성공을 거두었습니다.

1980 년대에 인기를 끌었던 일렉트로닉 음악 은 1990 년대에 큰 인기를 얻었습니다. 1980 년대의 하우스테크노 는 지난 10 년 동안 국제적인 성공을 거두었으며 Rave , 해피 하드 코어 , 드럼 및베이스 , 지능형 댄스트립 홉같은 새로운 일렉트로닉 댄스 음악 장르를 선보였습니다 . 유럽에서는 Techno , RaveReggae 음악이 매우 성공적이었으며 [2] 국제적인 성공을 거두었습니다. 10 년은 또한 컨템포러리 컨트리 음악 의 부상을 특징으로합니다.1980 년대에 시작된 메이저 장르로 [삼]

1990 년대에는 또한 록 음악 요소와 혼 기반 음악 의 융합을 특징으로하는 세 번째 웨이브 스카스윙 리바이벌을 포함한 새로운 맥락에서 이전 스타일이 부활했습니다 .

Christgau 's Consumer Guide : Albums of the '90s (2000) 에서 10 년 동안의 음악적 발전을 반영하면서 음악 평론가 Robert Christgau 는 1990 년대가 "풍부하고 혼란스럽고 알 수 없었으며" "개인 선호도의 변덕에 크게 영향을 받았지만" 바위와 롤러에 의해 어느 정도 관리 할 수있는 정도의 일반적인 이해와 즐거움 . " [4]

1999 년 12 월 Billboard 매거진은 Mariah Carey 를 미국 10 년의 예술가로 선정했습니다. [5] 1999 년, 셀레나 에 의해 "십년 라틴 작가의 베스트 셀러"는 "90 년대의 최고 라틴어 아티스트"라는 한 빌보드 톱 라틴어 노래에서 그녀의 열네 최고 열 싱글 차트 7 가지 번호를 포함, -하나의 안타. [6] 이 가수는 또한 1994 년과 1995 년에 가장 성공적인 싱글 " Amor Prohibido "와 " No Me Queda Más "를 가졌습니다 . [7]

북아메리카

얼터너티브 록

Nirvana같은 밴드의 돌파구 와 1990 년대 그런지 및 Britpop 무브먼트의 인기로 인해 얼터너티브 록이 음악의 주류가되었고 1990 년대에 많은 얼터너티브 밴드가 상업적으로 성공했습니다.

1990 년대 초에 음악 산업은 얼터너티브 록의 상업적 가능성에 매료되었고 앨리스 인 체인 , 펄 잼 , 제인의 중독 , 공룡 주니어 , 너바나 등 주요 음반사가 적극적으로 구애했습니다 . [8] 특히, REM 의 성공은 1980 년대 후반 및 1990 년대에 수행하는 많은 대체 밴드 청사진이되었다; 이 그룹은 많은 동시대 사람들보다 오래 지속되었으며 1990 년대에는 세계에서 가장 인기있는 밴드 중 하나가되었습니다. [9] Mazzy Star 는 "Fade into You"(1993)와 Smash Mouth 로 탑 40 히트를 기록했습니다.히트 곡 "Walkin 'on the Sun"(1997)과 "All Star"(1999)를 기록했습니다. [10]

Red Hot Chili Peppers 는 그들의 앨범 Blood Sugar Sex Magik 으로 얼터너티브 록의 부상에서 중요한 밴드가되었습니다 . 펑크 록과보다 전통적인 록 음악을 결합한 Red Hot Chili Peppers는 1999 년 앨범 Californication을 발표하면서 주류의 성공을 거둘 수있었습니다 .

Oasis 는 얼터너티브 록의 최전선에서 매우 인기있는 Britpop 밴드였습니다. 1994 년 출시 된 Definitely Maybe 부터 (What 's the Story) Morning Glory? 1995 년 Oasis는 1990 년대 내내 국제적인 성공을 거두었습니다. 이 앨범에는 " Slide Away ", " Wonderwall "및 " Do n't Look Back in Anger " 와 같은 매우 인기있는 노래가 포함되었습니다 . "Wonderwall"은 영국 싱글 차트에서 2 위, 미국 빌보드 100에서 8 위를 기록했습니다.

1990 년대 최고의 주류 미국 얼터너티브 록 밴드에는 Hootie and The Blowfish , Collective Soul , Creed , Nirvana , Alice in Chains , Dinosaur Jr , The Mighty Mighty Bosstones , Green Day , Weezer , Live , The Wallflowers , Toad the Wet 등이 있습니다. 스프로킷 , REM , 자손 , 성냥갑 20 , 레드 핫 칠리 페퍼스 , 소울 망명 , 리즈 페어 , 레몬 헤드, Soundgarden , Counting Crows , Spin Doctors , dc Talk , Goo Goo Dolls , Third Eye Blind , Smash Mouth , Smashing Pumpkins , 4 Non Blondes , Beck , The Breeders , Gin Blossoms , Foo Fighters , Sublime , Marcy Playground , No Doubt , 구멍 , 케이크 , 블라인드 멜론 , 뱀장어 , 석조 사원 조종사 , 쓰레기, 그리고 Pearl Jam . 이 밴드는 스카, 펑크, 팝, 메탈 및 기타 많은 음악 장르의 영향을 받았습니다.

대체 금속
Aerosmith 는 "보스턴의 배드 보이즈"및 "미국 최고의 로큰롤 밴드"라고도 불리는 미국 록 밴드입니다.

1990 년대 초에 얼터너티브 록의 요소와 헤비메탈 을 결합한 새로운 스타일의 얼터너티브 음악이 등장했습니다 . " 대안 금속 " 이라고 불리는이 새로운 장르 는 1990 년대 후반 뉴 메탈 운동의 선구자로 간주됩니다. 이 스타일은 Tool , HelmetJane 's Addiction같은 밴드로 대표되었습니다 . Faith No More , Primus , Red Hot Chili PeppersRage Against the Machine을 포함한 다른 밴드 펑크힙합 요소를 혼합 하여 펑크 메탈랩 메탈같은이 스타일의 하위 장르를 만들었습니다..

그런지
Nirvana1991 년 후반에 그런지얼터너티브 록 을 주류로 가져온 것으로 간주됩니다 .

얼터너티브 록의 하위 장르 인 그런지 밴드는 1990 년대 초반에 엄청난 인기를 얻었습니다. 그런지 음악과 그와 관련된 하위 문화 는 1980 년대 미국 태평양 북서부 워싱턴오리건 주 에서 탄생했습니다 . [11] Nirvana , Soundgarden , Alice in Chains , Pearl Jam같은 아티스트들은 1991 년 얼터너티브 록을 인기를 얻었습니다. 그러나 많은 밴드들이 그들의 성공에 불편 함을 느끼고 똑같이 그런지 레이블을 의심했습니다.

Nirvana와 Pearl Jam과 같은 그런지 동시대 사람들은보다 직접적이고 덜 세련된 록 사운드를 전달했습니다. 펄잼 은 1991 년 네버 마인드 보다 한 달 앞선 데뷔 앨범 ' '을 발매 했지만 판매량은 1 년 만에 증가했다. 1992 년 하반기에 Ten 은 금메달을 획득하고 Billboard 200 앨범 차트 에서 2 위를 차지 하며 획기적인 성공을 거두었 습니다. [12] Pearl Jam은 리프가 많은 스타디움 록과 포스트 펑크와 그런지의 그릿과 분노가 융합 된 것으로 유명했습니다.

1990 년대 중반에 많은 그런지 밴드가 헤어 지거나 눈에 잘 띄지 않게되었습니다. 1994 년 초 커트 코베인죽음과 펄 잼의 투어링 문제 ( 티켓 마스터 의 많은 공개 된 보이콧으로 인해 )는 장르의 쇠퇴를 표시했습니다. [13]

포스트 그런지
Pearl Jam 은 1990 년 워싱턴 주 시애틀에서 결성 된 미국 록 밴드입니다.

오리지널 그런지 밴드가 쇠퇴하는 동시에 메이저 음반사들이이 장르를 모방하는 밴드를 계약하고 홍보하기 시작했습니다. [14] 용어 포스트 그런지는 자세와 음악 에뮬레이트 이러한 대역 설명하는 신조어 그런 특히 두꺼운 왜곡 기타를, 그러나보다 쉬운 무선 상업적 지향 사운드. [15]

1995 년, 전 Nirvana 드러머 Dave Grohl 의 새로운 밴드 인 Foo Fighters 는 장르를 대중화하고 매개 변수를 정의하는 데 도움을주었습니다. MTV에서 상당한 방송을 통해 미국에서 가장 상업적으로 성공한 록 밴드 중 하나가되었습니다. [16] 90 년대의 가장 성공적인 포스트 그런지 행위 중 일부는 Candlebox , Bush , Collective Soul , Creed , Matchbox Twenty , Our Lady Peace , Foo Fighters , Live 등이었습니다. 이 장르는 다음과 같은 밴드를 포함하여 다음 10 년 초반에 또 다른 성공적인 연기 물결을 일으킬 것입니다.Nickelback , Creed , Lifehouse , 3 Doors Down 등. 이러한 밴드 중 일부는 1990 년대 후반에 결성되었지만 많은 사람들은 다음 10 년 초까지 상업적인 돌파구를 보지 못했습니다.

인디 락

1990 년대 얼터너티브 록의 엄청난 성공에 이어 " 인디 록 " 이라는 용어 는 지하에 남아있는 밴드와 장르와 관련이있게되었습니다. 같은 밴드 소닉 유스픽시스는 같은 밴드, 지하 장면에서 인디 록의 상승을위한 무대를 포장 , 빵의 궁수 , 슬리 터 키니 , 유출에 내장 , 요 라 텡고 , 종축 , Superchunk , 공룡 주니어 , Cat Power , 음성 안내 , Sebadoh , The Jesus Lizard ,Liz PhairThe Flaming Lips 는 10 년 동안 인기를 얻고 있습니다.

스카 펑크

1990 년대 후반에는 Reel Big Fish , The Mighty Mighty Bosstones , Sublime , No Doubt같은 3 세대 스카 밴드에 대한 주류의 관심이 다른 음악 장르가 추진력을 얻음에 따라 약화되었습니다. [17]

스케이트 펑크와 팝 펑크

미국의 펑크 록은 1990 년대 초 ~ 중반에 부활했습니다. 그 당시 펑크 록은 상업적으로 실행 가능하지 않았고, 1994 년 Green Day 의 돌파구가 될 때까지 주요 레코드 레이블이 펑크 록 밴드와 계약하지 않았습니다 .이 두 가지 요인은 종종 밴드 사람들이 운영 하는 수많은 독립 레코드 레이블 의 출현에 기여했습니다. 자신과 친구들의 음악을 발표하기 위해 독립 레이블 Lookout! Records , Fat Wreck ChordsEpitaph Records 는 상업적 성공을 거두었습니다.

스케이트 펑크는 1990 년대 중반에 처음에는 북부 캘리포니아에 기반을 둔 스케이트 펑크 밴드 Green Day 와 1990 년대 후반에 남부 캘리포니아에 기반을 둔 팝 펑크 밴드 Blink-182 와 함께 주류로 자리 잡았 습니다. . 그린 데이 의 앨범 Dookie (1994)는 미국에서 천만장, 전 세계적으로 천만장을 팔았다. Dookie 의 발매 직후 , The Offspring 은 앨범 Smash를 발매했다 . 이 앨범은 전 세계적으로 1400 만 장 이상 판매되었으며, 독립 레이블에서 판매 된 대부분의 앨범에 대한 기록을 세웠습니다. [18] Rancid 's Let 's Go이 기간 동안 NOFXDrublic펑크 도 출시되었으며 둘 다 금메달을 받았습니다 . 연말까지 DookieSmash 는 수백만 장을 판매했습니다. [19] 이 두 앨범의 상업적 성공은 스케이트 / 팝 펑크에 대한 주요 레이블의 관심을 끌었으며 Bad Religion 과 같은 밴드 는 수익성있는 계약을 통해 독립 음반사를 탈퇴했습니다. 1999 년 블링크 - 182 의 출시와 함께 돌파구를 만들어 국가의 관장 을 통해 1,500 만 카피가 전세계에서 멀티 플래티넘 상태를 받고 판매, 미국 , 캐나다 , 호주 ,이탈리아 , 뉴질랜드유럽영국의 플래티넘 등급 . Green Day 는 펑크 록에서 가장 큰 연기로 간주되며 Blink-182Fall Out BoyAll Time Low같은 후기 밴드에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 보입니다 .

헤비메탈

2011 년 6 월 Metaltown Festival에서 라이브 공연하는 Korn

금속의 많은 하위 장르 는 1980 년대에 상업적 주류 밖에서 개발되었습니다. [20] (가)는 1990 년대 초에 금속 때리기 장르 주로의 엄청난 성공 때문에, 브레이크 아웃 성공을 거두었 메탈시조 5 집 1991 년 발매 기세 좋게 처음 주류 스 래시 메탈. Metallica의 성공에 이어 MegadethCountdown to Extinction (1992)이 2 위, [21] Anthrax , Pantera , Slayer 가 상위 10 위, [22] , Testament 와 같은 지역 밴드의 앨범을 기록했습니다.에 Sepultura는 상부 (100)에 입력 [23]

10 년 후반에 산업용 금속 이 대중화되었습니다. 1990 년대 미국 최고의 주류 산업 금속 밴드로는 Nine Inch Nails , Marilyn Manson , White Zombie , KMFDM , Ministry , Fear Factory 등이 있습니다.

Death Metal은 1990 년대 초반에도 Death , Deicide , Morbid Angel , Cannibal CorpseObituary 와 같은 행위로 추진력을 얻었습니다 .

Black Metal의 두 번째 물결은 Mayhem , BurzumDarkthrone 에서 노르웨이를 선도하는 힘으로 인기를 얻었습니다 .

팝 록과 싱어 송 라이터

1990 년대에는 1970 년대 싱어 송 라이터 운동이 부활했습니다. 이 운동은 Norah Jones , DidoSarah McLachlan같은 예술가들과 함께 2004 년까지 지속되었습니다 . 이 운동의 중요한 예술가로는 Mariah Carey , Alanis Morissette , Tori Amos , Fiona Apple , Liz Phair , Juliana Hatfield , Edwin McCain , Duncan Sheik , Jewel , Natalie Merchant , Tal Bachman , Shawn Mullins , Sheryl CrowLisa Loeb이 있습니다.. 운동의 유명한 앨범은 멀티 플래티넘 1995 앨범이었다 지그재그 작은 환약 에 의해 앨라니스 모리셋 뿐만 아니라, 쉐릴 크로우 의 1993 앨범 화요일 밤 음악 클럽 과 그녀의 1996 시조 앨범 . [24] Tom Cochrane (캐나다)는 "Life is a Highway", [25] Marc Cohn은 "Walking in Memphis", 4 None Blondes는 히트 곡 "What 's Up"을 발표했습니다.

이 트렌드는 1990 년대 후반 에 "틴 팝록"운동의 첫 번째 아이돌이 된 Lynda Thomas 와 함께 끝났습니다 . [26] 2000 년대 후반에 Avril Lavigne , Kelly Clarkson 과 같은 후기 가수들과 함께 가장 높은 인기를 얻었습니다. , P! nk , Hilary Duff , Ashlee Simpson . [ 인용 필요 ]

또한 1990 년대와 같은 예술가 제프 버클리 , 데이브 매튜스 , 샤니 아 트웨인 , 브라이언 아담스 , 엘리엇 스미스 , 멜리사에서 릿지 뿐만 아니라, 쉐릴 크로우는 새로운 음향 기반의 록 스타일을 만들 수 싱어 송 라이터의 전통에서 차용.

단단한 돌

Firehouse , Warrant , Extreme , Slaughter , Skid Row같은 3 세대 글램 메탈 아티스트 는 10 년 초에 가장 큰 성공을 거두었지만이 밴드의 인기는 1992 년 이후 약해졌습니다. 1980 년대에 큰 인기를 끌었던 Mötley CrüePoison 은 각각 1989 년과 1990 년에 성공적인 앨범을 발표했으며 10 년 초반에도 계속해서 그 성공의 혜택을 누 렸습니다. Black Crowes 는 1990 년에 성공적으로 데뷔하면서보다 고전적인 로큰롤 사운드를 선보였 습니다. Guns N 'Roses 와 같은 더 잘 알려진 하드 록 아티스트, Van Halen , Def Leppard , Ozzy Osbourne , Tom Petty 는 성공적인 앨범을 발표하고 10 년 상반기에 매우 인기를 유지했으며 Aerosmith , Bon Jovi , Metallica 는 주로 자신을 재창조함으로써 10 년 내내 인기를 유지했습니다. 새 앨범마다 다른 사운드를 탐색합니다.

미국 보컬 그룹 Backstreet Boys1990 년대에 가장 상업적으로 성공한 보이 밴드 중 하나가되었습니다 .
Britney Spears 는 1990 년대 가장 성공적인 팝 가수 중 한 명이되었습니다.

컨템포러리 R & B어반 팝 은 1990 년대에 걸쳐 인기를 얻었지만 10 년 후반에는 더 많은 팝 록과 댄스 음악에 가려졌습니다. 마이클 잭슨은 1991 년 앨범 Dangerous ( 3200 만장 판매)와 1995 년 후속작 인 HIStory ( 2 천만장 판매)로 1990 년대에 비판적이고 상업적인 성공을 이어갔습니다 . [27] 잭슨의 전 앨범 데뷔 싱글 " Black or White "는 1990 년대 베스트셀러 싱글 중 하나였으며 , 후반 앨범 의 데뷔 싱글 " You Are Not Alone "은 1995 년 9 월 2 일 첫 싱글이되었습니다. 빌보드 핫 100 1 위 데뷔차트. 1997 년 Jackson은 Blood on the Dance Floor : HIStory in the Mix 를 발매하여 역대 베스트셀러 리믹스 앨범이되었으며 여전히 6 백만 장 이상 판매 된 기록을 보유하고 있습니다.

영국 걸 그룹 The Spice Girls 는 미국 시장을 뚫고 비틀즈 이후 북미 에서 가장 상업적으로 성공한 영국 그룹이되었습니다 . 그들의 영향은 그룹의 성공 이전에 그런지와 힙합이 우세한 미국 차트 십대 팝 행위 의 광범위한 침략을 가져 왔습니다. 1997 년에서 2000 년 사이에 Backstreet Boys , * NSYNC , 98 Degrees , Hanson , Christina Aguilera , Britney Spears , Jessica Simpson , Mandy Moore미국 청소년 팝 가수 및 그룹, Jennifer LopezDestiny 's ChildY 세대의 초기 멤버를 대상 으로 The Spice Girls 의 리드에 따라 인기를 얻었습니다 . 10 년이지 나면서 브리트니 스피어스크리스티나 아길레라 는 히트 싱글 " ... Baby One More Time "과 " Genie in a Bottle "과 각각의 데뷔 앨범으로 큰 성공을 거두었 습니다. Britney Spears의 싱글 / 앨범은 1999 년 초 미국 차트 정상에 올랐습니다. [28]"Womanizer"(Jive)는 데뷔 싱글 "... Baby One More Time"에 이어 스피어스의 두 번째 히트 곡입니다. Spears는 Cher의 "Believe"가 1999 년 3 월 폴 포지션을 차지한 이래 가장 긴 안타 차이를 가지고 있습니다. "Dark Lady"가 1 위를 차지한 지 25 년 만에 불과 10 일 밖에되지 않습니다.

마돈나에로티카 는 1992 년에 발매되었고 그녀의 가장 논란이 많은 작품 중 하나가되었습니다. 1998 년 2 월, Madonna는 전 세계적으로 1600 만 장 이상 판매 된 비평가들의 찬사를받은 Ray of Light를 출시 했습니다. Cyndi Lauper 는 그녀의 첫 번째 성숙한 앨범 Hat Full of Stars (1993)를 발표했으며, 첫 번째 두 앨범의 이미지를 완성했지만 상업적 성공을 거두지 못했지만 비평가들로부터 높은 평가를 받았습니다. Billboard의 Larry Flick은 Janet JacksonThe Velvet Rope를 "올해 최고의 미국 앨범이자 지난 5 년 동안 가장 힘을 실어주는 앨범" 이라고 불렀습니다 . [29] 1997 년 10 월 출시,The Velvet RopeBillboard 200 에서 1 위로 데뷔했습니다. [30] 1997 년 8 월 앨범의 리드 싱글 " Got 'til It 's Gone "이 라디오에 발매되어 Billboard Rhythmic Airplay Chart 에서 12 위를 기록했습니다 . [31] 이 싱글 Joni Mitchell의 노래 " Big Yellow Taxi "를 샘플링 했으며 래퍼 Q-Tip 의 카메오 출연을 특징으로했습니다 . "Got 'til It 's Gone"은 1997 년 그래 미상을 수상한 최우수 단편 뮤직 비디오 . [32] 앨범의 두 번째 싱글 " Together Again ",Billboard Hot 100 싱글 차트, Elton JohnThe Rolling Stones동등한 순위에 있습니다. [33] 뿐만 아니라 영국 싱글 차트에 19주 지출로, 핫 100에 46주 기록을 소요 한 싱글. [33] " I Get Lonely "는 Hot 100에서 3 위에 올랐습니다. [34] Velvet Rope 는 전 세계적으로 천만 장 이상의 앨범을 판매했으며 RIAA로부터 플래티넘 3 회 인증을 받았습니다. [35] [36] 셀린 디온Falling into You (1996), Let 's Talk About Love같은 베스트셀러 영어 앨범을 발매 한 후 10 년 동안 세계적인 성공을 거두었습니다.(1997), 둘 다 RIAA에 의해 인증 된 다이아몬드입니다. Dion은 또한 " 미녀와 야수 "(1991), " 당신이 나를 요청하면 "(1992), " 사랑의 힘 "(1993), " Think Twice "(1994 )를 포함하여 일련의 국제 1 위 히트 곡을 기록했습니다. "), 당신은 나를 사랑하기 때문에 (1996)", " 그것은 모두가 나를 지금 위로를오고 ,) ("1996 " 나 자신에 의해 모든 ") (1996 " 나는 당신의 천사 해요 "( "1998 년) 및 그 길 그것의 인가 (1999) ". 1997 년 12 월, Dion은 싱글 " My Heart Will Go On "을 발표했습니다. . 전 세계적으로 1,800 만 장의 판매로 추산되는이 싱글은 역대 베스트셀러 중 하나이며 역사상 여성 아티스트에 의해 두 번째 베스트셀러 싱글이되었습니다.

성인 현대

1990 년대 초, " Vision of Love "(1990), " Love Takes Time "(1990), Whitney Houston 의 " All the Man That I Need "(1990) 및 " I "와 같은 Mariah Carey 의 히트 싱글 Will Always Love You "(1992)는 현대 성인 형식 라디오 차트 1 위를 차지했습니다 . [37]

현대 R & B

Whitney HoustonMariah Carey에 이어 1990 년대에 두 번째로 많이 팔린 여성 예술가였습니다.

휘트니 휴스턴 의 조용한 폭풍 히트 곡에는 " 내가 필요한 모든 사람 "(1990)과 " 나는 항상 당신을 사랑할 것입니다 "(1992)가 포함되었습니다. 후자는 1992 년 히트작 인 The Bodyguard 의 노래 로 당시 Billboard Hot 100 에서 14 주 동안 기록을 세웠으며 전 세계적으로 4 천만 장 이상 판매되었습니다. 역대 여성 연기로 베스트셀러 싱글입니다. 1990 년대에 머라이어 캐리 의 경력은 " 사랑의 비전 "(1990)과 " 사랑에 시간이 걸립니다 "(1990)와 같은 히트 싱글 조용한 폭풍 에서 시작되었습니다 . 그녀의 앨범 Music Box (1993)와 Daydream(1995)는 역대 가장 많이 팔린 앨범 중 일부이며 R & B에 큰 영향을 미쳤습니다. Richard J. Ripani는 "복음 음악 보컬 전통에 크게 의존하고있는 Carey와 Houston은 일반적으로 1980 년대와 1990 년대에 R & B에서 증가한 멜리스마강조합니다"라고 썼습니다 . [37] 캐리의 '사랑의 비전은 "melisma의 사용의 극단적 인 예로 간주하고, 다음 20 년 동안 여성 아티스트와 노래의 전체 melismatic 경향을 시작 킥 알려져있다. 비욘세 는 다른 많은 유명 아티스트와 마찬가지로 노래를 부르고 싶게 만들기 위해 노래를 인용했습니다. [37] 또한 1990 년대 초 Boyz II Men은 클래식 소울에서 영감을받은 보컬 하모니를 다시 대중화했습니다. 마이클 잭슨새로운 잭 스윙 을 그의 1991 년 앨범 Dangerous에 통합 하여 3 천 5 백만 개 이상의 판매를 기록했으며 10 년 동안 가장 많이 팔린 앨범입니다. [38] [39]

발라드와 R & B 의 인기는 Urban adult Contemporary 라는 라디오 형식의 개발로 이어졌습니다 . 인기있는 미국 현대 R & B 아티스트로는 Mariah Carey , Mark Morrison , Faith Evans , 112 , D' Angelo , Lauryn Hill , Whitney Houston , En Vogue , Toni Braxton , Boyz II Men , Mary J. Blige , Dru Hill , Vanessa Williams , Groove Theory , Bell Biv Devoe , Jodeci ,Jon B. , Diana King , Tony! 토니! 음정! , Tara Kemp , Brownstone , Shanice , Usher , SWV , Silk , 702 , Aaliyah , Keith Sweat , TLC , Xscape , Brandy , Monica , Mýa , Total , Tevin Campbell & R.Kelly . Boyz II Men, Babyface 의 작품과는 달리같은시기의 다른 R & B 아티스트들과 유사한 아티스트들이 그들의 작업에 더 많은 힙합 사운드를 추가하기 시작했습니다. 신디사이저가 많은 새로운 잭 스윙의 리듬 트랙은 더 멋진 이스트 코스트 힙합에서 영감을받은 백킹 트랙 으로 대체 되어 프로듀서 Sean Combs가 힙합 소울 이라는 장르로 분류 되었습니다 . 이 스타일은 1990 년대 말에 덜 인기를 얻었지만 나중에 다시 부활했습니다.

1990 년대 중반, Janet Jackson , Mariah Carey , Faith Evans , TLC , Xscape , Whitney HoustonBoyz II Men 은 현대 R & B를 대중에게 가져 왔습니다.

잭슨의 5 번째 정규 앨범 자넷. (1993)은 Virgin Records 와의 역사적인 수백만 달러 계약 이후에 전 세계적으로 2 천만 장 이상 판매되었습니다. Houston, Boyz II Men 및 Carey는 Boyz II Men과 Carey 의 콜라보레이션 인 " Exhale (Shoop Shoop) ", " One Sweet Day " 빌보드 핫 100 No. 1 히트 곡을 여러 녹음했습니다. Hot 100 역사에서 히트했습니다 . Carey, Boyz II Men 및 TLC는 1994 년과 1995 년에 Daydream , IICrazySexyCool 앨범을 발표했습니다.각각 - 즉, 1995 년에 미국의 시작에서 그 다이아몬드 상태를 적립, 만 10여 사본을 판매의 그래미 어워드는 이연 최우수 R & B 앨범을위한 그래미 상II , 및 보이즈 투 멘은 처음받는 사람이되었다. 이상은 나중에 1996 년 CrazySexyCool의 TLC에 의해 수상되었습니다 .

Boyz II Men " One Sweet Day " 와 머라이어 캐리의 듀엣 은 10 년 말 차트에서 1 위를 기록하며 10 년의 노래로 발음되었습니다. Carey는 Billboard의 10 년 동안 가장 성공적인 여성 아티스트가되었으며 90 년대에 가장 성공적인 R & B 활동 중 하나가되었습니다.

Janet Jackson , Michael Jackson , Whitney HoustonMariah Carey같은 R & B 아티스트 역대 베스트셀러 음악 아티스트 중 일부 이며 특히 1990 년대에는 컨템포러리 R & B를 전 세계 플랫폼에 도입했습니다.

네오 소울

D' Angelo 는 neo-soul 운동의 핵심 선구자로 간주됩니다.

1990 년대 중반 D' Angelo , Erykah Badu , Lauryn Hill , Maxwell 등의 아티스트들이 이끄는 1970 년대의 소울 블렌드에 힙합 소울 블렌드를 더한 네오 소울 이 등장했습니다 . Lauryn HillMissy Elliott 는 두 스타일을 모두 녹음하여 R & B와 힙합 사이의 경계를 더욱 흐리게했습니다. D' AngeloBrown Sugar 는 1995 년 6 월에 발매되었습니다. 처음에는 판매가 부진했지만 앨범은 결국 인기를 얻었습니다. Billboard Hot 100 차트에서 10 위를 기록한 "Lady"가 최고치를 기록했습니다. # 10. 앨범은 플래티넘 인증을 받았습니다 .미국 음반 산업 협회 (Record Industry Association of America )는 미국에서 100 만 부를 출하 한 반면 [40] [41] 총 판매량은 150 만 부에서 200 만 부 이상으로 추정됩니다. [42] [43] [44] 앨범은 100 만대의 출하량을 나타내는 미국에서 백금, 인증 동안, 총 매출에 악영향을 1.5에서 200 만대까지 추정에 여러 출판물에 의해보고되었다. 이 앨범은 Maxwell , Erykah BaduLauryn Hill의 데뷔 앨범과 함께 1990 년대 의 급성장하는 Neo soul 움직임에 대한 상업적 가시성을 제공하는 데 도움이되었습니다.. 이 앨범은 또한 중요한 성공을 거두었으며 그해 많은 비평가들의 최고 목록에 올랐습니다.

Hill의 The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill (1998)은 그녀의 유일한 스튜디오 앨범으로 남아 있습니다. 그것은 비평가들의 찬사를 받았는데, 일부는 그것이 역대 최고의 네오 소울 앨범이라고 제안했다. Billboard 200 에서 1 위로 데뷔하여 전 세계적으로 1,900 만 장을 판매하여 " Doo Wop (That Thing) ", " Ex-Factor "및 " Everything Is Everything "을 발매했습니다 . 41 회 그래미 어워드 에서 앨범은 올해의 앨범을 포함하여 5 개의 그래미 어워드를 수상했습니다 . 얼마 지나지 않아 Hill은 주로 음악 산업에 대한 불만으로 인해 대중의 눈에서 떨어졌습니다.

힙합

Lauryn Hill 은 1990 년대 가장 성공적인 힙합 여성 예술가 중 한 명이었습니다.

이 10 년은 1980 년대 힙합 문화의 중심지였던 뉴욕에서 로스 앤젤레스, 애틀랜타, 휴스턴, 베이 지역, 마이애미, 시카고, 멤피스와 같은 다른 도시로 랩 음악 장면이 확장 된 것으로 유명합니다.

Dr. Dre 의 1992 년 앨범 The Chronic 은 현대 갱스터 랩 의 템플릿을 제공했습니다 . [45] 만성뿐만 아니라, 드레의 성공에 1993 인해에, 스눕의 앨범, Doggystyle의 성공을 자신의 허용 스눕 독으로 알려진 새로운 아티스트를 소개 데스로 레코드 , 웨스트 코스트 힙합 지배 엉덩이 1990 년대 초 동부 해안 의 악명 높은 BIG 와 함께 홉 . [46] 힙합은 1990 년대 중반으로 최고의 판매 음악 장르가되었다. [47] [48]

1990 년대에 발표 랩 앨범에는 만성 으로 닥터 드레 , Illmatic 나스에 의해, 나에 대한 모든 Eyez 투팍에 의해, 우 탕 (36 챔버)를 입력 우 - 탱 클랜에 의해 죽을 준비를 악명 높은 BIG 의해 즐거 '더러운 UGK에 의해 19 장난 꾸러기 III에 의한 자연에 의해 장난 꾸러기 , 그리고 Doggystyle 에 의해 스눕 도기 독 ,.

1998 년, 로린 힐빌보드 200 에서 1 위를 차지한 데뷔 앨범 The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill을 발표했습니다 . 1999 년 The Miseducation 은 그래미 10 개 부문 후보에 올랐고 5 개 (당시 힙합 아티스트로는 들어 본 적이 없음 )를 수상했으며 결국 전 세계적으로 1,900 만 장 이상 판매되었습니다. [49]

1990 년대 중반은 West Coast 기반 래퍼 2PacEast Coast 기반 래퍼 The Notorious BIG 의 죽음으로 표시되었습니다.

The early 1990s was dominated by female rappers, such as Queen Latifah and hip hop trio Salt-N-Pepa. The late 1990s saw the rise of successful female rappers and a turn in East Coast hip hop, with the debuts of Lil' Kim (with Hard Core) and Foxy Brown (with Ill Na Na), due to their use of excessive raunchy and provocative lyrics.

By the end of the 1990s, attention turned towards dirty south and crunk, with artists such as Outkast, Trick Daddy, Trina, Three 6 Mafia, Master P, Juvenile, Missy Elliott and Lil Wayne.[50]

The mid 1990s were marked by the deaths of the West Coast-based rapper 2Pac and the East Coast-based rapper The Notorious B.I.G., which conspiracy theorists claim were killed as a result of the East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry.

Samples and interpolations of old songs in hip hop songs were common in the 1990s because it was meant to celebrate the end of the 2nd millennium and the 20th century by going retro. Many of these songs are as follows: "U Can't Touch This" by MC Hammer; "Jump Around" by House of Pain; "Mo Money Mo Problems" and "Big Poppa" by Notorious B.I.G.; "It Was a Good Day" by Ice Cube; "Regulate" by Warren G and Nate Dogg; "I'll Be Missing You" by Puff Daddy featuring Faith Evans and 112; "Ain't No Nigga" by Jay-Z featuring Foxy Brown; "Killing Me Softly" by The Fugees; "Feel So Good" by Mase; "Hey Lover" by Boyz II Men featuring LL Cool J; "C.R.E.A.M." by Wu-Tang Clan; "Nuthin' but a 'G' Thang" by Dr. Dre featuring Snoop Dogg; "No Diggity" by BLACKstreet; "Gangsta's Paradise" by Coolio featuring L.V.; "The Rain (Supa Dupa Fly)" by Missy Elliott; "I Wish" by Skee-Lo; "People Everyday" and "Tennessee" by Arrested Development; "The Humpty Dance" by Digital Underground; 2pac's "Do for Love", "I Get Around", and "California Love"; and Will Smith's "Men in Black", and "Wild Wild West".

Some of the most prominent rap artists of the 1990s include 2Pac, Notorious B.I.G., Nas, Ice Cube, Dr. Dre, LL Cool J, Eazy-E, Wu-Tang Clan, Snoop Doggy Dogg, Busta Rhymes, Cypress Hill, MC Hammer, Coolio, OutKast, Three 6 Mafia, Mobb Deep, A Tribe Called Quest, Puff Daddy, Will Smith, DMX, Master P, Jay Z and Eminem.

Electronic music

Moby, 2009

With the explosive growth of computers, music technology and consequent reduction in the cost of equipment in the early 1990s, it became possible for a wider number of musicians to produce electronic music. Even though initially most of the electronic music was dance music, the genre developed in the 1990s as musicians started producing music which was not necessarily designed for the dance-floor but rather for home listening (later on referred to as "Electronica") and slower paced music which was played throughout chillout rooms—the relaxation sections of the clubs (later on referred to as "downtempo", "chill-out music" and "ambient music").

Since we don't really know what was the first electronic music computer generated track ever made, in the USA we can find in the intro of Pink Floyd's "Dark Side of the Moon" released in 1973, a fully completed music track using only computers and machines. At the same time, in Germany, Kraftwerk is recognised as the very first band creating music only with machines and computers. Kraftwerk were the pioneers of what is electronic music nowadays.

Then, the electronic music scene exploded in the world, with at the front line, Chicago for House Music, and Detroit the Techno.

In the late 1990s, Madonna had success with her album Ray of Light which experimented with electronica sounds. Moby achieved international success in the ambient electronica scene after releasing his critically acclaimed album Play in 1999 which produced an impressive eight hit singles (including his most popular songs "Porcelain", "Natural Blues" and "Why Does My Heart Feel So Bad?").

Sasha using Ableton Live at a nightclub.

Electronic dance music was highly successful throughout the decade in Europe, particularly in Britain, Germany and Italy. Outdoor raves were popular at the start of the decade in the UK, before the government introduced its Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, leading to a higher number of superclubs opening. Among the most successful were Ministry of Sound and Cream. Before the ban, popular genres at these raves included breakbeat hardcore and techno, though in the mid-1990s these genres splintered into separate scenes, such as happy hardcore, jungle and drum and bass, the latter of which received mainstream recognition through artists such as Goldie and Roni Size.

Other notable British genres that emerged during the decade include progressive house, big beat, vocal house, trip hop and UK garage (or speed garage). The latter genre developed in London in the late 1990s and continued to be successful through to the early 2000s. DJ Culture also gained momentum during the 1990s. DJs such as Sasha, John Digweed, Paul Oakenfold, Ferry Corsten and Pete Tong became big names in the business, which was made desirable by magazines such as Mixmag and Muzik.

Italy ended the 1980s with Italo house, before becoming one of many countries to release Eurodance and Hi-NRG. Both genres were commercially successful across the world, with artists such as 2 Unlimited, La Bouche and Captain Hollywood promoting the genre. Countries such as Germany and Belgium, however, developed harder, darker styles of music, namely gabber, hard trance and techno. Trance emerged in the early 1990s and by the end of the decade had penetrated most of Europe, with artists such as ATB, Ferry Corsten, WestBam and Paul Van Dyk gaining huge commercial and underground success. European trance remained popular until the early 2000s. Goa became famed for its goa trance parties and Ibiza became the Number 1 clubbers' holiday destination.

Country music

The popularity of country music exploded in the early 1990s. The stage had been set in 1989 with the debuts of several performers who proved to be profoundly influential on the genre during the 1990s and beyond. Most notable of that group was Garth Brooks, who shattered records for album sales and concert attendance throughout the decade. The RIAA has certified his recordings at a combined (128× platinum), denoting roughly 113 million U.S. shipments.[51] Brooks recorded primarily in a honky-tonk style, although he frequently combined elements of soft rock and arena rock in his songs. His songs sometimes explored social themes, such as domestic violence (in "The Thunder Rolls") and racial harmony ("We Shall Be Free)", while others – such as "Friends in Low Places" — were just good-time songs with traditional country themes of heartbreak, loneliness and dealing with those emotions.

Other performers who rose in popularity during the early 1990s were neo-traditionalists Clint Black and Alan Jackson and southern rock influenced Travis Tritt. Mary Chapin Carpenter had a folk-style about her, while Lorrie Morgan (the latter the daughter of the late George Morgan, (himself a country legend) blended elements of country and pop, and occasionally operatic sounds in songs such as "Something in Red." Trisha Yearwood was one of the top new singers of 1991, while Diamond Rio blended traditional and bluegrass styles and Brooks & Dunn provided a driving honky-tonk sound.

During the early-to-middle part of the decade, several recordings were influenced by the popularity of line dancing, including "Boot-Scootin' Boogie" by Brooks & Dunn and "Achy Breaky Heart" by Billy Ray Cyrus. This influence was so great that Chet Atkins was quoted as saying "The music has gotten pretty bad, I think. It's all that damn line dancing."[52]

A steady stream of new artists began their careers during the mid- and late-1990s. Many of these careers were short-lived, but several went on to long-lived, profitable careers. The most successful of the new artists were Yearwood, Shania Twain, LeAnn Rimes, Lee Ann Womack, Martina McBride, Kenny Chesney, Collin Raye, Faith Hill, and Tim McGraw, while Lonestar and Dixie Chicks were the most successful new groups. Twain's Come on Over album became the best-selling album released by a female of any genre. Yearwood became the first woman in more than 25 years to have her debut single top the Billboard Country Singles chart in 1991 with her single "She's in Love with the Boy". Yearwood's debut album also became the first by a female country act to sell over 1 million copies, eventually going double platinum.

Among artists whose success continued from the 1980s, Reba McEntire was the most successful of the female artists, selling more than 30 million albums during the decade, gaining eight number-one hit singles on the U.S. Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart and six number one albums internationally, including her best-selling album, Greatest Hits Vol. 2, which was released in September 1993 and has sold over an international amount of 10 million copies to date. George Strait, a neo-traditionalist whose national success began in the early 1980s, enjoyed success as both a radio artist (17 No. 1 songs) and as a movie star (1992's Pure Country). Alabama, the most successful country band of the 1980s, continued their run of popularity with sell-out concerts and best-selling albums, while topping the country chart five times. Among older artists having big hits, Conway Twitty was one of the most successful, scoring two Top 3 hits with "Crazy in Love" and "I Couldn't See You Leaving", while Eddie Rabbitt had a No. 1 hit with "On Second Thought." Dolly Parton had a No. 1 hit (with relative newcomer Ricky Van Shelton) on "Rockin' Years" in 1991 and had several top 15 hits. Although his 1990s singles never reached the top 20 (excepting for a duet single with Randy Travis), George Jones (who had been around since the 1950s) regularly recorded and released critically acclaimed material, including the semi-autobiographical "Choices." The Oak Ridge Boys continued their run of success with a No. 1 hit ("No Matter How High") and several other top 40 hits; in 1995, upon the departure of William Lee Golden's replacement Steve Sanders, Golden reunited with longtime band members Duane Allen, Joe Bonsall and Richard Sterban, and the group has remained intact since then. While the Oak Ridge Boys' contemporaries The Statler Brothers were no longer reaching the top 40, the veteran group remained highly popular with fans and their new albums continued to sell well. Other artists reaching the top 10 of the Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart were Waylon Jennings, Anne Murray, and Kenny Rogers.

Pop-influenced country music began growing in popularity, particularly after Twain and Hill rose in popularity in the latter half of the 1990s. In 1998, Hill's "This Kiss" and Twain's "You're Still the One" both reached the top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100, in addition to peaking at No. 1 on the Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart. Rimes had a multi-million selling hit with "How Do I Live" (a song successfully covered by Yearwood), while Lonestar also had a huge crossover hit with "Amazed." Although the occurrence of country crossing over to the pop charts goes back as far as the start of the Billboard charts in 1940, some critics began to be troubled by a trend toward what they perceived as pop music marketed as country; they contended that radio was concentrating more on newer music while ignoring the more traditional styles of older artists such as Merle Haggard, George Jones, and others who continued to record and release new material. Johnny Cash and producer Rick Rubin once purchased a full-page advertisement in Billboard magazine – after Cash's album Unchained won a Grammy for Best Country Album, despite a lack of support from radio – showing a young Cash displaying his middle finger and sarcastically "thanking" radio for supporting the album. The criticism of pop-influenced and non-traditional styles in country music, however, dated back to the 1970s although it had quieted down comparably during the 1980s.

In the 1990s, alternative country came to refer to a diverse group of musicians and singers operating outside the traditions and industry of mainstream country music. In general, they eschewed the high production values and pop outlook of the Nashville-dominated industry, to produce music with a lo-fi sound, frequently infused with a strong punk and rock & roll aesthetic, bending the traditional rules of country music. Lyrics were often bleak, gothic or socially aware. Other initiators include Old 97's, Steve Earle, Uncle Tupelo, Son Volt, Ryan Adams, My Morning Jacket, Blitzen Trapper, and Drive-By Truckers.

A number of notable artists in country music died during the decade, including Twitty, Webb Pierce, Dottie West, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Roger Miller, Roy Acuff, Charlie Rich, Minnie Pearl, Faron Young, John Denver, Carl Perkins, Grandpa Jones, Tammy Wynette, Eddie Rabbitt, Gene Autry, Roy Rogers, Rex Allen and Hank Snow.

Jazz

Swing revival

During the 1990s, concurrent with third wave ska, swing music made a resurgence in the form of swing revival, which brought the jazz form into the pop charts. Reaching its commercial zenith around the time of the movie Swingers, whose soundtrack featured numerous 1990s swing bands, the movement was exemplified by bands such as Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, Cherry Poppin' Daddies, Squirrel Nut Zippers, and the Brian Setzer Orchestra. The highest charting song of the genre would have been "Jump, Jive an' Wail" by the Brian Setzer Orchestra, which peaked at #23 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the U.S. in 1998, and won the Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals in 1999.

Europe

Rock

Madchester

In the late 1980s/early 1990s, a counter-culture movement rose from the Manchester club scene that came to be known as Madchester. Happy Mondays, and The Stone Roses were the pre-eminent bands.

Britpop

Oasis were the biggest band of the 1990s Britpop scene and the only band to make a significant impact in the US market.

In the early 1990s, a counter-culture movement rose in Britain, called Britpop by the music press, rejecting the themes of disenfranchised youth coming out of America in favour of songs written specifically about the experiences of the British youth. Although the movement was heavily influenced by 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s British rock there was very little that musically defined the Britpop bands beyond the intensely British lyrical themes. Britpop bands such as Blur, Suede, Pulp, Ash, Elastica, Supergrass, The Verve and Oasis regularly topped the singles and album charts throughout the decade. Oasis were the biggest band of the Britpop era, as their second album (What's the Story) Morning Glory? became the second highest selling studio album of all time in the U.K[53] and their era defining concerts at Knebworth Park, playing to 250,000 people over two nights,[54] broke records for attendance and ticket applications.[54] In addition to this, they made a significant impact on the US market, achieving three top 5 albums in that country. The Britpop phenomena ran out of steam by the end of the 1990s with most of its most successful bands splitting up or fading away, although bands that rose from the rubble of predecessors Oasis were Travis, Coldplay and Keane.

Post-Britpop

From about 1997, Britpop as a movement began to dissolve, emerging bands began to avoid the Britpop label while still producing music derived from it.[55][56] Many of these bands tended to mix elements of British traditional rock (or British trad rock),[57] particularly the Beatles, Rolling Stones and Small Faces,[58] with American influences, including post-grunge.[59][60] Post-Britpop bands like Coldplay, Travis, Stereophonics and Feeder achieved much wider international success than most of the Britpop groups that had preceded them, and were some of the most commercially successful acts of the late 1990s.[60][61][62][63]

Other trends

The Irish Celtic folk rock band The Corrs achieved international success during the late 1990s with a series of hit recordings which established them as international stars and helped a successful career that continued into the 2000s.

Pop

Spice Girls became one of the biggest global pop acts of the decade

Pop music and dance music became popular throughout the 1990s. Popular European pop artists of the 1990s included Seal, M People, 2 Unlimited, and Ace of Base.

During the 1990s, some European managers created their own boy band acts, beginning with Nigel Martin-Smith's Take That and East 17, which competed with Louis Walsh's Irish bands Westlife and Boyzone.[64] In 1996, the male saturated market was turned on its head by one of the most successful and influential pop acts of the decade, the Spice Girls. The group achieve nine number 1 singles in the UK and US, including "Wannabe", "2 Become 1" and "Spice Up Your Life".[65] The group, unlike their British boy band predecessors, manage to break America and achieve the best-selling album of 1997 in the USA. More Girl Groups begin to emerge such as All Saints, who had five number 1 hits in the UK and two multi-platinum albums.[66] By the end of the century the grip of boy bands on the charts was faltering, but proved the basis for solo careers like that of Robbie Williams, formerly of Take That, who achieved six number one singles in the UK between 1998 and 2004.[66] Additional popular European teen pop acts of the 1990s included Ace of Base, Aqua and A*Teens.

Ballad songs were popular during this decade, and popular European artists included George Michael, Robert Palmer, Sade, Sinéad O'Connor, The Cranberries, Lisa Stansfield and Roxette. Danish pop/soft rock band Michael Learns to Rock, fronted by singer/songwriter/keyboardist Jascha Richter, were well known for their ballads, particularly in Asia with songs such as "The Actor", "Sleeping Child", "That's Why (You Go Away)", and "Paint My Love".

In the summer of 1996, the Spanish music duo Los del Río popularized the dance craze "Macarena" with their summer hit "Macarena". The song was featured prominently in many other countries during the mid-1990s.

Electronic music

The Dutch Eurodance act 2 Unlimited was one of the most successful Electronic music artists of the 1990s.

With the explosive growth of computers music technology and consequent reduction in the cost of equipment in the early 1990s, it became possible for a wider number of musicians to produce electronic music.

The English electronic dance music group The Prodigy was one of the most successful electronic music groups of the 1990s.

The popularity of house, techno and rave in the early part of the decade lead to the boom of the more commercial Eurodance genre. Popular European Eurodance acts of the decade included Toy-Box, Daze, Jonny Jakobsen, Alexia, Alice Deejay, Haddaway, Captain Jack, Captain Hollywood Project, Basic Element, Solid Base, Daze, Gigi D'Agostino, Vengaboys, 2 Unlimited, Cappella, Corona, Culture Beat, DJ Bobo, Dr. Alban, Ice MC, La Bouche, 2 Brothers on the 4th Floor, Twenty 4 Seven, Leila K, Fun Factory, Masterboy, Mr. President, Pandora, Magic Affair, Maxx, Loft, Sash!, BKS, Snap!, Playahitty, Love Inc., Real McCoy, Urban Cookie Collective, Scatman John, Paradisio and Whigfield. Eventually the popularity of the Eurodance genre lead to the huge popularity of the trance genre in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

The 1990s also saw the development and refinement of IDM (intelligent dance music), which borrowed from forms such as techno, drum and bass and acid house music and introduced more abstract elements, including heavy use of digital signal processing.[67]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, popular electronic genres of the 1990s included breakbeat hardcore, drum and bass/jungle, big beat and UK garage. Among the most commercially successful electronic acts in the 1990s of these scenes were artists such as the Prodigy, the Chemical Brothers, Fatboy Slim, Aphex Twin, Autechre, Boards of Canada, Squarepusher, Leftfield, LFO, Massive Attack, Portishead, Underworld and Faithless. Notable 1990s UK garage acts included the Dreem Teem, Tuff Jam, Grant Nelson, 187 Lockdown, R.I.P. Productions/Double 99, Dem 2 and Sunship.

The arrival of Massive Attack in the early 1990s lead to a new style of slow electronic music dubbed trip hop and influenced groups such as Portishead, Björk, Tricky, Morcheeba and Thievery Corporation.

Latin America

Pop

Puerto Rico became a merengue stronghold in the early 1990s, with acts such as Elvis Crespo, Olga Tañon and Grupo Mania topping the charts throughout Latin America.

Latin boys band and vocal pop groups were storming up the charts in Mexico and Central America. Mexican boy band Magneto spawned hits in the early 1990s but split in 1996. In 1995, their successors, Mercurio continued making top hits like Bye Bye Baby and Explota Corazón. MDO, a Puerto Rican boy band also hoarded the charts with songs like No Puedo Olvidarme de Ti. Mexican pop groups Onda Vaselina and Kabah spanned several hits in the Latin American charts and made history in the Mexican charts. Jeans, Mexican pop girl group rose to fame in late 1996 and 1997 and continued until the 2000s.

Luis Miguel, first Latin idol of the decade.

Then-21-year-old singer Luis Miguel rediscovered the bolero circa 1991, echoing back to the trios of the 1940s with his album Romance, making him the biggest international Latin star until the late 1990s.

Thalía rose to fame as a member of the musical group Timbiriche.

From early to mid-1990s successful acts such as Selena Quintanilla-Pérez, Thalía, Lynda Thomas, Chayanne, Paulina Rubio and arguably the most successful and influential, Gloria Trevi, became the first 1990s music idols in Latin America, subsequently appeared other successful singers and pop groups, including No Mercy, Shakira, Fey and Enrique Iglesias, they also achieved international success.

Colombian rock singer Shakira, Puerto Rican-American actress Jennifer Lopez, and Spanish singer Enrique Iglesias began to rise into the top of the pop charts by the end of the decade, following Selena's assassination.

Ricky Martin eclipsed Luis Miguel as the top Latin star when he performed "The Cup of Life" during the 1999 Grammy Awards, earning him the award for Best Latin Pop Performance. He released his English-language debut album less than half a year later, which featured the international hit, opening track "Livin' La Vida Loca".

Rock

Maná in concert.

Surge of newfound interest in Spanish-language rock, led by bands like Soda Stereo, Héroes del Silencio, Los Fabulosos Cadillacs, Maná, La Ley, Café Tacuba or Los Tres which gained large international following during this period. Others would follow their footsteps.

Along with the rise of Spanish rock came "rock alternativo", a Spanish equivalent to alternative rock headed by bands like Los Piojos, Babasónicos and Attaque 77. The "rolinga" or "stone rock" genre also emerged from "rock alternativo", popularized and headed throughout the entire decade by Viejas Locas. The stone-rock genre would remain popular in the 2000s with the Viejas Locas' vocalist, Pity Álvarez's other band Intoxicados.

Salsa

During the 1990s, salsa spread from the Caribbean region all over Latin America sharing the dance music niche with cumbia. During this period salsa became also increasingly popular as dance music in the US and Europe. Beginning in 1990, the salsa romantica that began in the 1980s becomes a standard in tropical music thanks to chart-topping stars mainly from Puerto Rico such as Marc Anthony, Jerry Rivera, Tito Rojas, Víctor Manuelle and Gilberto Santa Rosa.

Cumbia

In the 1990s, the popularity of cumbia waned in favour of other styles such as salsa but remained relatively strong. In Argentina, Mexico, El salvador, Colombia and other countries as well synthesizers and elements of electronic music were incorporated into cumbia music, giving birth to cumbia sonidera, cumbia andina mexicana and cumbia villera. The blending of chicha music and cumbia in Peru also gained large popularity.

Australia and New Zealand

Pop Rock

Bands INXS and Crowded House, who had risen to international fame in the 1980s, continued their success into the nineties. However, INXS saw a decline in popularity after the release of 1993's Full Moon, Dirty Hearts, which did not even reach the US Top 50 and on 22 November 1997, a few months after the release of the band's tenth studio album Elegantly Wasted, lead singer Michael Hutchence was found dead in a Sydney hotel room. Crowded House released two further albums, 1991's Woodface and 1994's Together Alone, which were both successful internationally, but disbanded in 1996 after playing their 'Farewell to the World' concert at the steps of the Sydney Opera House. Their greatest hits compilation album Recurring Dream, released in 1996, debuted at number one in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom and reached the Top 20 in several European territories. Notable nineties Australian rock bands include Silverchair, Savage Garden, Bachelor Girl, Powderfinger, and The Living End.

In New Zealand, hip hop group OMC's single "How Bizarre" became the most successful New Zealand song in history, reaching number one in several music charts around the world, including Australia, Canada, Ireland, South Africa and Austria.[68] The nineties saw a surge in popularity of alternative rock music in New Zealand, especially the popularity of alternative rock bands from the independent music label Flying Nun Records. Successful alternative rock bands of this era include Straitjacket Fits, Headless Chickens and The Chills. Headless Chickens provided Flying Nun with their first number one New Zealand single in 1994 with their song "George".

Australian singer Kylie Minogue, who quickly rose to fame in the late eighties, continued to be popular throughout the decade, most notably with songs "Confide in Me" and "Where the Wild Roses Grow", which she recorded with Nick Cave. The nineties also saw the emergence of pop/rock singer Natalie Imbruglia who gained a worldwide popularity with a cover of Ednaswap's song Torn, pop singer Peter Andre, pop band Human Nature, Tina Arena and R&B Hip Hop artists CDB and Deni Hines.

Asia

Japanese Rock

In 1998, Supercar released its influential debut album Three Out Change.[69] Characterized as having "almost foundational importance to 21st century Japanese indie rock",[70] Supercar remained active through 2005 with their later albums containing more electronic rock.[69]

Around the same time, bands such as Quruli and Number Girl had begun heavily influencing Japanese alternative rock. Music critic Ian Martin wrote that, along with Supercar, these groups had demonstrated that "Japanese rock bands could take on the British and American alternative bands of the 90s at their own game ... and in doing so, they had laid new ground for Japanese rock to develop in its own way from this point on."[71]

J Pop

Tokyo-based noise rock band Melt-Banana became an international touring cult act as well as the Boredoms.

J-Pop was a major trend in the late 1990s. The Japanese record label Avex Trax produced a string of top-charting J-pop artists, including Namie Amuro, Ayumi Hamasaki, and the band Every Little Thing. Hikaru Utada, only 16 at the time, scored her signature hit in 1999 with "Automatic", which was later covered by Hong Kong singer Kelly Chen. Also in 1999, DA PUMP, a four-member boyband, had a hit with "Crazy Beat Goes On!",[72] featured in the soundtrack of the year's film blockbuster, Star Wars Episode 1: The Phantom Menace. "Give me a shake", by girl-band MAX, was also a chart-topper in 1999.

J-pop in the 1990s was significant because of its irresistible inclusion of English lyrics in the songs. Titles of most songs were also often in English. Notable examples include "Feeling good – it's paradise" by DA PUMP and "Give me a shake" by MAX. Other J-pop artists, such as Hokkaido two-girl band Kiroro, rarely included English lyrics in their songs.

Some non-Japanese-speaking artists, such as Taiwan's Vivian Hsu, also crossed over successfully into J-pop; Hsu's band Black Biscuits had a hit single in 1999 in both Japanese[73] and Taiwanese Mandarin[74] with "Bye bye". Taiwanese singer A-mei recorded a Japanese song on her 1999 album May I hold you, lover?.

Asian Pop

The 1990s saw a revival of interest in local music in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore. In these four regions alone, local artists outsold foreign artists, especially during the late 1990s.

Three big Taiwanese rockers were household names throughout the 1990s. In 1997, it was Wu Bai; in 1998, the two-piece outfit Power Station; and in 1999, the veteran pub guitarist/singer Dick Cowboy.

Wu was known for his versatile ability to sing and write songs in Hokkien ("Number one in the world",[75] "Back to hometown",[76] "Lonely tree, lonely bird"[77]) as well as Taiwanese Mandarin ("Wanderer's love song",[78] "Crying woman"[79]), and also his poetic lyrics. His compositions were also recorded by other artists such as Hong Kong's Jacky Cheung ("If this is not love"[80]), Wakin Chau ("Crying woman"[81]), and Andy Lau ("Number one in the world",[82] "Lone star tear"[83]), and Taiwan's Tarcy Su ("Lazy Man's Diary",[84] "Passive",[85] "Yellow Moon"[86]).

Power Station, a Taiwanese aboriginal duo from the Paiwan tribe, were well known for their long hair, pitch-perfect two-part vocal harmonies, branded guitars/basses, and electrifying rock anthems. Members Yu Chiu-Hsin and Yen Chih-Lin also enjoyed success as singers of numerous television opening (and occasionally ending) themes throughout 1998 and 1999; they won the Best Theme Song award at the 1999 Star Awards for their song "I can endure the hardship", opening theme song to the award-winning drama series Stepping Out.[87]

Dick Cowboy had been a singer in various pubs in his youth, and was especially known for his covers of songs by A-mei,[88][89][90] Phil Chang,[91] and Jeff Chang.[92] In 1999, at the age of 40, his original composition "Forget me or forget him"[93] propelled him to superstardom.

High-voiced male singers were fashionable in Taiwanese pop music in the 1990s. Jeff Chang was the foremost of these. His album Intuition (1998) contained the title track,[94] which is his biggest single to date.

Singer-songwriter Panda Hsiung, whose voice was very similar to Chang's, had his biggest hit with his original composition "Incomprehensible memories"[95] in 1998, which was featured on the soundtrack of the drama, Legend of the Eight Immortals. Panda also had a string of hits throughout 1998 and 1999, including "I Wander Alone",[96] "River of the Blues",[97] "Snowbird",[98] and "The Match Girl".[99]

Other popular Taiwanese male singers with exceptionally high voices during the 1990s included Chang Yu Sheng, Terry Lin, and Chyi Chin.

The Eurodance craze found its way into the Asian pop market with such singers as Yuki Hsu. Her first big hit, recorded in 1999 when she was only 20, was "Who is bad?",[100] a cover of Jonny Jakobsen's "Calcutta (Taxi taxi taxi)".[101] Similarly, J-pop became popular in Taiwan and Hong Kong after their songs were translated into Chinese, for instance Kelly Chen's "Automatic[102] ", a cover of the Hikaru Utada original;[103] and Rene Liu's "Later",[104] a remake of the Kiroro original.[105]

Hong Kong's Four Heavenly KingsAaron Kwok, Andy Lau, Jacky Cheung, and Leon Lai – were the undisputed solo artists from Hong Kong in the 1990s. Cheung was also nicknamed the "God of Songs" during this period.

Young Hong Kong singers Daniel Chan, Ronald Cheng, and Gigi Leung had their big breaks in the 1990s. Chan's "Only you in my heart",[106] on the album of the same name, was released in 1997 when Chan was only 22; the song was later selected as the opening theme song of Singaporean TV series, From the Medical Files. Chan would also continue to sing a few television opening/ending themes in 1998, including "Lonely nights I'm not lonely"[107] (from Stand by me), "When dreams are discovered"[108] and "Does your heart hurt"[109] (both from A Piece of Sky).

Cheng's album I Really Can was released in 1999 and was his biggest seller to date; his other successful albums included You Are Not My Dearest Lover (1997) and Don't Love Me (1996).

Leung's album Fresh (1999), along with its title track,[110] was a bestseller upon its release, and the title track remains her signature song.

Julie Su Rui of Taiwan and Anita Mui of Hong Kong, both of them established veteran singers, also had comeback albums in this period. Su's album Love Comes This Way was released in 1998, and Mui's Intimate Lover, in 1992.

In late 1999, two Hong Kong veteran singers had chart-topping albums. Jordan Chan's album A Bigger Star contained the song "I Don't Have Such Fate";[111] while William So's album Loving Someone Is So Hard contained "You + Me + Heartbroken",[112] a re-recording of his signature song "Sadder as We Kiss" with new lyrics.

Other Asian singers who had chart-toppers in the 1990s included, among others:

The 1990s also saw the death of Taiwanese countertenor singer Chang Yu Sheng, who died in a car accident late in 1997. His protege, aboriginal singer A-mei, recorded the song "Hearing You, Hearing Me" in his memory.[113]

See also

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External links