1974 년 백악관 헬리콥터 사고 - 1974 White House helicopter incident

1974 년 백악관 헬리콥터 사고
벨 UH-1 Iroquois "Huey"헬리콥터
도난당한 헬리콥터, 지금 전시 중
사건
데이트 1974 년 2 월 17 일
요약 도난당한 헬리콥터
대지 백악관
38 ° 53'48 "N 77 ° 02'11"W  /  38.896665 ° N 77.036484 ° W / 38.896665; -77.036484 좌표 : 38 ° 53'48 "N 77 ° 02'11"W  /  38.896665 ° N 77.036484 ° W / 38.896665; -77.036484
항공기
항공기 유형 벨 UH-1B 이로쿼이
운영자 미국 육군
기재 62-1920
출발지 포트 미드 , 메릴랜드
크루 1
부상 1

1974년 2월 17일에서 미 육군 개인 로버트 K. 프레스턴은 도난에 벗고 벨 UH-1B 이러 쿼이 에서 "휴이"헬리콥터 Tipton은 필드 , 메릴랜드 , 그리고에 착륙 한국 잔디백악관 보안의 주요 위반 . Preston은 헬리콥터 조종사가되기 위해 육군에 입대했지만 헬리콥터 훈련 과정을 졸업하지 않았고 영장 조종사 지위를 획득 할 기회를 잃었습니다 . 그는 육군에서 4 년 동안 복무하기 위해 입대했으며 Fort Meade 로 보내졌습니다.헬리콥터 정비사로. Preston은이 상황이 불공평하다고 믿었고 나중에 조종사로서의 기술을 보여주기 위해 헬리콥터를 훔쳤다고 말했습니다.

자정이 지나자 프레스턴은 휴가를 보내고 포트 미드 남쪽의 팁튼 필드로 돌아 왔습니다. 기지에있는 30 대의 헬리콥터가 연료를 공급 받아 비행 할 준비가되었습니다. 그는 충돌 방지 표시등이 켜지지 않거나 표준 무선 전화를 걸지 않은 상태에서 이륙했습니다. 메릴랜드 주 경찰은 경고되었고, 프레스턴을 향해 남서쪽으로 날아 워싱턴 DC 그가 가까이에 공중 선회, 링컨 기념관워싱턴 기념비 와 백악관의 남쪽 잔디밭에 걸쳐. 그 후 두 사람과 함께 다시 포트 미드을 향해 날아 벨 (206) 을 추구 JetRanger 경찰 헬기와 경찰 차량입니다. 메릴랜드를 쫓은 후 그는 다시 워싱턴쪽으로 진로를 되돌려 백악관에 들어갔다. 이번에는비밀 서비스 가 발사되었습니다. 프레스톤은 가벼운 부상을 입고 헬리콥터를 착륙 시켰으며 체포되어 구금되었습니다.

그의 군법정에서의 유죄 판결에서 프레스턴은 "부당한 전유와 평화의 위반"에 대해 유죄를 인정하고 징역 1 년과 2,400 달러 의 벌금 (2019 년 12,442 달러에 해당)을 선고 받았다 . 그는 이미 6 개월 동안 감옥에 있었으며 추가로 6 개월 동안 복역해야했습니다. 석방 후 프레스톤 은 육군에서 일반 제대받았고 조용한 삶을 살았고 결혼했으며 2009에서 암으로 사망했습니다.

배경

Robert Kenneth Preston은 1953 년 플로리다 주 파나마 시티 에서 태어났습니다 . 그는 러더 포드 고등학교주니어 예비군 장교 훈련단 프로그램에 등록했으며 오랫동안 군사 경력을 향한 열망을 가졌습니다. 그는 단일 엔진, 고정익 항공기에 대한 개인 조종사 면허를 취득하고 베트남에서 헬리콥터 조종사가되기를 희망 하며 Gulf Coast Community College 에서 항공 관리를 공부했습니다 . 에 입대 한 후 미 육군 1972 년, 그는 비행, 헬리콥터 조종사가되기 위해 훈련 휴즈 TH-55 오세이지 에서 포트 WOLTERS , 텍사스. 그는 "장치 단계의 결함"으로 인해 기술 교육에 실패하여 영장 조종사 가 될 기회를 잃었습니다 . 베트남에서 미군 의 지속적인 철수 와 그에 따른 자격을 갖춘 헬리콥터 조종사의 잉여는 프레스톤이 조종사로 인정받지 못하는 요인이되었을 수도 있습니다. 프레스턴은 여전히 미 육군과 봉사하는 그의 4 년 의무에 구속되고, 그는에 보내졌다 포트 미드 , 메릴랜드 1월 1974 년 헬리콥터 정비사로, [1] 사고 당시, 그는 20 세 , 개인 일등석 의 계급과 함께 ; 그는 그의 지휘관에 의해 평균 이상의 지능을 가진 "일반적이고 조용한 개인"으로 묘사되었다.[2]

사건

refer to caption
Tipton Field에서 워싱턴까지 Preston의 비행 차트

1974 년 2 월 17 일 자정이 조금 지나자 프레스턴은 실패한 관계와 군 경력의 불확실한 미래로 인해 낙담 한 채 댄스홀과 레스토랑을 떠났습니다. 그는 Fort Meade 남쪽에 있는 육군 비행장 인 Tipton Field 로 돌아 왔습니다 . 그곳에서 30 대의 Bell UH-1 Huey 헬리콥터가 연료를 공급 받고 준비되었습니다. Preston은 나중에 "나는 일어나서 날아가서 조종사 뒤로 가고 싶었다. 나는 비행을 좋아하기 때문에 기분이 나아질 것"이라고 회상했다. 그는 무방비 비행장에 차를 주차하고 일련 번호 62–1920 인 헬리콥터 중 하나에 올라 비행 전 점검을 시작했습니다. 얼마 지나지 않아 그는 충돌 방지 조명을 작동하지 않거나 일반 무선 전화를 걸지 않고 이륙했습니다. 관제탑의 관제사가 도난당한 헬리콥터를 발견하고메릴랜드 주 경찰 . [2]

Preston flew low over the restaurant he had visited earlier, then briefly touched down in a nearby field where his hat was later recovered. He then decided to visit Washington, D.C., 20 miles (32 km) southwest, by following the lights of the Baltimore–Washington Parkway. Preston's helicopter was first discovered by the District of Columbia police when he was spotted hovering between the United States Capitol and the Lincoln Memorial. Flight over this area was strictly prohibited, but this was not enforced in any significant way at the time; surface-to-air missiles were not installed around Washington until after the September 11 attacks. Preston spent 5–6 minutes hovering a couple of feet above the Washington Monument's grounds, then flew over the Capitol, and went on to follow Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House.[1][3] The Secret Service policy, at the time, was to fire at aerial intruders, but when to do so was left vague—especially if it could harm bystanders. While Preston was hovering above and briefly touched down on the South Lawn, the White House Executive Office control center watch officer, Henry S. Kulbaski, attempted to contact his superiors by phone but received no answer. After the helicopter departed, Kulbaski ordered his agents to shoot it down if it returned.[2]

At 12:56 a.m., an air traffic controller at Washington National Airport noticed a blip on his radar scope; after realizing it was the stolen helicopter, the controller alerted the police. Preston then turned back toward Fort Meade in Maryland and left the restricted airspace; an old Bell 47 helicopter of the Maryland Police followed, but was too slow to keep up with Preston.[3] The stolen helicopter soon appeared on the Baltimore–Washington International Airport's radar, and two Maryland State Police Bell 206 JetRangers were dispatched to intercept.[3] Preston turned northeast, pursued by the two helicopters and police cars. He caused one police car to crash by executing a head-on pass just a few inches above its roof, briefly hovered above a doughnut shop, then followed the Baltimore–Washington Parkway once again toward Washington, planning to surrender personally to U.S. President Richard Nixon. Preston evaded one of the JetRangers with what its pilots described as "modern dogfighting tactics".[2] With only one helicopter left chasing him, Preston flew along the Parkway at constantly changing speeds between 60–120 knots (110–220 km/h; 69–138 mph), sometimes just inches above car-top level.[2]

refer to caption
The White House South Lawn, where Preston landed

Preston's Huey came in over the White House grounds at 2 a.m., barely clearing the steel fence surrounding the area.[4] According to the pilot of the JetRanger, Preston was so close, he "could have driven right in the front door". The helicopter was suddenly illuminated by floodlights, and the Secret Service agents opened fire with automatic weapons and shotguns. Shots hit Preston's foot, and the helicopter veered to the side, bouncing on one skid, but he was able to regain control and settled his helicopter on the South Lawn, 300 feet (91 m) from the mansion.[1][3][5][6][7]

Some 300 rounds were fired, of which five hit Preston, causing superficial wounds. He exited the helicopter and started running toward the White House, but was tackled to the ground by Secret Service agents. Handcuffed, Preston was taken to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center for treatment, where he arrived smiling and "laughing like hell".[2] At the time of the incident, Richard Nixon was traveling in Florida, and First Lady Pat Nixon was in Indianapolis, visiting their sick daughter, Julie.[8]

Aftermath

The helicopter became a major tourist sight that day. It was evaluated by army personnel and found to be flightworthy despite its many bullet holes, and was flown off in front of cameras from many major TV networks and reporters shortly before noon. The helicopter was extensively photographed as part of the investigation, then was repaired and returned to service. It was later put on display at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Willow Grove.[2] It is believed that Preston's actions influenced Samuel Byck to attempt to hijack a plane five days later, carrying a .22 caliber revolver and a gasoline bomb. According to self-recorded audio from prior to the hijacking, Byck intended to assassinate President Nixon. Police shot him, and he died by suicide.[9]

Preston was initially charged with unlawful entry into the White House grounds, a misdemeanor with a fine of $100 (equivalent to $518.42 in 2019)[10] and a maximum six-month jail term. His lawyers arranged a plea bargain in which all charges under civilian jurisdiction would be dropped if the case were transferred to the military. At his court-martial, he was charged with several counts of attempted murder and several minor offences. The pilot of one of the JetRangers stated that he had thought that Preston intended to commit suicide by crashing into the White House, but Preston maintained that he only wanted to draw attention to the perceived unfairness of his situation and show his skill as a pilot.[11][12] He pled guilty to "wrongful appropriation and breach of the peace"[13] and was sentenced to one year in prison and fined $2,400 (equivalent to $12,442 in 2019).[9][10][12] The duration of his court-martial was given to him as time served; this meant he had to serve a further six months in prison.[11] He instead served two months at Fort Riley, Kansas, before being granted a general discharge from the Army for unsuitability.[14]

The Secret Service increased the size of the restricted airspace around the White House. Nixon congratulated Kulbaski and the pilot and copilot of the JetRanger; the three and other agents were presented with pairs of presidential cufflinks in a White House ceremony.[2][12]

Preston moved to the state of Washington after his release. He married in 1982 and raised his wife's two daughters. He died of cancer on July 21, 2009, while living in Ephrata, Washington.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Madden, Richard L. (February 18, 1974). "Soldier Lands Stolen Copter on White House Lawn". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 29, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Freeze, Christopher (April–May 2017). "Robert Preston's Wild Ride – The Time a Stolen Helicopter Landed on the White House Lawn". Air & Space/Smithsonian. National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on March 23, 2017. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d United States Department of the Treasury, United States Government Printing Office Staff (May 1995). "The Evolution of Presidential Security". Public Report of the White House Security Review. University of California: Department of the Treasury. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-16048-388-2. LCCN 96120576 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Kearns, Robert (September 12, 1994). "Uninvited guests are nothing new". Deseret News. Reuters. Archived from the original on February 13, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
  5. ^ Kearns, Robert (May 25, 1995). "'Jumpers' Have Intruded on White House For Years". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
  6. ^ "Guards fire on 'copter in White House drama". The Age. February 17, 1974. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
  7. ^ Noah, Timothy (May 12, 2005). "Slate's Chatterbox: The D.C. No-Fly, No-Shoot Zone". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on February 4, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
  8. ^ "Mental Observation Ordered For Pilot of Stolen Helicopter". Evening Independent. February 18, 1974. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
  9. ^ a b Feinman, Ronald L. (2015). "Richard M. Nixon and the Baltimore Airport Incident". Assassinations, Threats, and the American Presidency: From Andrew Jackson to Barack Obama. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-44223-122-1. LCCN 2014044057.
  10. ^ a b Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  11. ^ a b "Soldier Gets Year Term for Helicopter Incident". The New York Times. Associated Press. August 30, 1974. Archived from the original on December 29, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  12. ^ a b c Hill, Clint; McCubbin, Lisa (2016). "The Unraveling of a Presidency". Five Presidents: My Extraordinary Journey with Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, and Ford. Simon and Schuster. p. 412. ISBN 978-1-47679-413-6. LCCN 2015050618.
  13. ^ "헬기 파일 유죄 항변의 조종사" . 뉴욕 타임즈 . Associated Press . 1974 년 8 월 27 일. 2019 년 12 월 8 일에 원본 문서 에서 보존 된 문서 . 검색된 년 12 월 (8), 2019 년 .
  14. "로버트 프레스턴" . 켄터키 새로운 시대 . Associated Press . 1974 년 10 월 24 일. p. 26 . 검색된 년 3 월 (1), 2014 년 -를 통해 Google 뉴스 .